Blood coagulation cascade inhibiting toxin

The blood coagulation cascade (Fig.1) is a series of reactions, in which a zymogen (inactive enzyme precursor) of a serine protease and its glycoprotein co-factor are activated and then catalyze the next reaction in the cascade, ultimately resulting in cross-linked fibrin.

The coagulation factors are principally serine proteases, which act by cleaving downstream proteins. There are some exceptions. For example, FVIII and FV are non-enzymatic oxidases, and Factor XIII is a transglutaminase. The coagulation factors circulate as inactive zymogens. The coagulation cascade is classically divided into three pathways. The tissue factor and contact activation pathways both activate the final common pathway of factor X, thrombin and fibrin.

    Figure 1: Blood coagulation cascade (Image from
    Wikimedia / licensed under Creative Commons ).

Venom blood coagulation cascade inhibiting toxins inhibit components of the blood coagulation cascade and cause an imbalance in the hemostasis.

See also UniProt-keyword

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

104 entries grouped by species (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

1 entry

Agkistrodon bilineatus (Cantil) (Tropical moccasin)

VSPCA_AGKBI Protein C activator (EC 3.4.21.-) (Snake venom serine protease) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (Southern copperhead)

"Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix" VenomZone page
VSPCA_AGKCO Protein C activator (EC 3.4.21.-) (ACC-C) (Snake venom serine ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (Western cottonmouth) (Acontias leucostoma)

VSPCA_AGKPL Protein C activator (APL-C) (EC 3.4.21.-) (Snake venom serine ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Bitis caudalis (Horned adder) (Horned viper)

PA2B_BITCA Basic phospholipase A2 caudoxin (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

2 entries

Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)

Select_allDeselect_all "Bothrops asper" VenomZone page
PA2H2_BOTAS Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 2 (svPLA2 homolog) (Myotoxin II) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2H4_BOTAS Phospholipase A2 homolog 4 (svPLA2 homolog) (Myotoxin IV) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

2 entries

Bothrops insularis (Golden lancehead) (Lachesis insularis)

Select_allDeselect_all
SLA_BOTIN Snaclec bothroinsularin subunit alpha (BIN) Snaclec family
SLB_BOTIN Snaclec bothroinsularin subunit beta (BIN) Snaclec family

4 entries

Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)

Select_allDeselect_all
SL9A_BOTJA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit A ... Snaclec family
SL9B_BOTJA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit B ... Snaclec family
SLAA_BOTJA Snaclec bothrojaracin subunit alpha (BJC subunit alpha) Snaclec family
SLAB_BOTJA Snaclec bothrojaracin subunit beta (BJC subunit beta) Snaclec family

2 entries

Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)

Select_allDeselect_all "Bothrops jararacussu" VenomZone page
PA2A_BOTJR Acidic phospholipase A2 BthA-1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (BOJU-III) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B2_BOTJR Basic phospholipase A2 bothropstoxin-2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Bothrops leucurus (Whitetail lancehead)

PA2BD_BOTLC Basic phospholipase A2 (blD-PLA2) (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Bothrops moojeni (Lance-headed viper) (Caissaca)

PA2A_BOTMO Acidic phospholipase A2 BmooPLA2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

2 entries

Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) (Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2B1_BOTPA Basic phospholipase A2 BnpTX-1 (BnPTx-I) (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B2_BOTPA Basic phospholipase A2 BnpTX-2 (BnPTx-II) (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Bothrops pirajai (Piraja's lance0 head)

"Bothrops pirajai" VenomZone page
PA2B3_BOTPI Basic phospholipase A2 piratoxin-3 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (MP-III ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

3 entries

Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2A1_BUNCE Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...
PA2B3_BUNCE Basic phospholipase A2 3 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...
PA2B_BUNCE Basic phospholipase A2 KPA2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Bungarus fasciatus (Banded krait) (Pseudoboa fasciata)

PA2B_BUNFA Basic phospholipase A2 BFPA (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Antimicrobial ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) (Agkistrodon rhodostoma)

VSPF1_CALRH Thrombin-like enzyme ancrod (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2A1_CERCE Acidic phospholipase A2 CC-PLA2-1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2A2_CERCE Acidic phospholipase A2 CC-PLA2-2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Condylactis gigantea (Giant Caribbean anemone)

PA2_CONGI Phospholipase A2 A2-actitoxin-Cgg2a (A2-AITX-Cgg2a) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family

3 entries

Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American rattlesnake)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2B6_CRODM Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic chain (CB) (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B9_CRODM Basic phospholipase A2 9 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Cdc-9) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2BA_CRODM Basic phospholipase A2 10 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Cdc-10) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

4 entries

Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2BA_CRODU Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic chain CBa2 (CB2) (CTX subunit ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2BB_CRODU Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic subunit CBb (CTX subunit CBb) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2BC_CRODU Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic subunit CBc (CB1) (CTX subunit ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2BG_CRODU Basic phospholipase A2 F17 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (CdtF17) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

3 entries

Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2A6_CROHD Acidic phospholipase A2 CH-E6' (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (CH-E6) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2AA_CROHD Acidic phospholipase CHA-E6a (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2AB_CROHD Acidic phospholipase A2 CHA-E6b (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

4 entries

Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera russelii)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2B8_DABRR Basic phospholipase A2 VRV-PL-VIIIa (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2BD_DABRR Basic phospholipase A2 daboxin P (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B_DABRR Basic phospholipase A2 RVV-VD (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2N_DABRR Neutral phospholipase A2 RVV-PFIIc' (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) (Daboia russelii siamensis)

PA2A_DABSI Acidic phospholipase A2 Drs-PLA2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

5 entries

Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) (Agkistrodon acutus)

Select_allDeselect_all
SLAA_DEIAC Snaclec anticoagulant protein subunit A (AaACP-A) Snaclec family
SLAB_DEIAC Snaclec anticoagulant protein subunit B (AaACP-B) (ACF 1/2 ... Snaclec family
SLUA_DEIAC Snaclec agkisacutacin subunit A (Agk-A) Snaclec family
SLUB_DEIAC Snaclec agkisacutacin subunit B (Agk-B) Snaclec family
XI_DEIAC Coagulation factor X inhibitor (Fragment) Not in a family

2 entries

Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled viper)

Select_allDeselect_all
SL9A_ECHCA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit A ... Snaclec family
SL9B_ECHCA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit B ... Snaclec family

2 entries

Gloydius brevicaudus (Korean slamosa snake) (Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus)

Select_allDeselect_all
SLA_GLOBR Snaclec salmorin subunit A Snaclec family
SLB_GLOBR Snaclec salmorin subunit B Snaclec family

6 entries

Gloydius halys (Chinese water mocassin) (Agkistrodon halys)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2A_GLOHA Acidic phospholipase A2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (APLA2) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2BB_GLOHA Basic phospholipase A2 B (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (BPLA(2)) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
SLA_GLOHA Snaclec coagulation factor IX-binding protein subunit A (IX-bp ... Snaclec family
SLB_GLOHA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit B ... Snaclec family
SLXA_GLOHA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit A ... Snaclec family
VSPCA_GLOHA Protein C activator (EC 3.4.21.-) (Snake venom serine protease) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Hemachatus haemachatus (Rinkhals) (Sepedon haemachatus)

3SO1_HEMHA Ringhalexin Snake three-finger toxin family, ...

1 entry

Hydrophis schistosus (Beaked sea snake) (Enhydrina schistosa)

PA2B_HYDSC Basic phospholipase A2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Myotoxin) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Naja atra (Chinese cobra)

"Naja atra" VenomZone page
PA2A1_NAJAT Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Muscarinic ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

3NO21_NAJKA Neurotoxin Nk-3FTx (Fragment) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...

2 entries

Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra)

Select_allDeselect_all "Naja mossambica" VenomZone page
PA2B2_NAJMO Basic phospholipase A2 CM-II (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...
PA2B3_NAJMO Basic phospholipase A2 CM-III (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

3 entries

Naja nigricollis (Black-necked spitting cobra)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2B1_NAJNG Basic phospholipase A2 CM-I (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...
PA2B2_NAJNG Basic phospholipase A2 CM-II (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...
PA2B4_NAJNG Phospholipase A2 "basic" (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Naja pallida (Red spitting cobra)

PA2B_NAJPA Basic phospholipase A2 nigexine (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Naja sagittifera (Andaman cobra)

PA2A4_NAJSG Acidic phospholipase A2 4 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)

PA2A2_OPHHA Acidic phospholipase A2 2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (APLA2-2) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus (Australian taipan) (Coastal taipan)

VKT_OXYSC Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor taicotoxin (Taicatoxin, ... Venom Kunitz-type family

5 entries

Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus flavoviridis)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2B2_PROFL Basic phospholipase A2 BP-II (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Basic ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B3_PROFL Basic phospholipase A2 BP-III (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Basic ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
SL9A_PROFL Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit A ... Snaclec family
SL9B_PROFL Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit B ... Snaclec family
SLA_PROFL Snaclec coagulation factor IX-binding protein subunit A (IX-bp ... Snaclec family

1 entry

Pseudechis papuanus (Papuan black snake)

PA2_PSEPP Phospholipase A2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Phosphatidylcholine ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

1 entry

Pseudocerastes fieldi (Field's horned viper) (Pseudocerastes persicus fieldi)

PA2B2_PSEFE Basic phospholipase A2 CbII (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

2 entries

Trimeresurus borneensis (Borneo pit viper)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2A_TRIBO Acidic phospholipase A2 Tbo-E6 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B_TRIBO Basic phospholipase A2 Tbo-G6D49 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

3 entries

Trimeresurus puniceus (Flat-nosed pitviper)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2AA_TRIPE Acidic phospholipase A2 Tpu-E6a (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2AC_TRIPE Acidic phospholipase A2 Tpu-E6c (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B_TRIPE Basic phospholipase A2 Tpu-G6D49 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

12 entries

Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree viper) (Viridovipera stejnegeri)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2BB_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 Ts-G6D49 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2HD_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-R6 (svPLA2 homolog) (CTs-R6) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2HE_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49a (svPLA2 homolog) Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2HF_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49b (svPLA2 homolog) Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2HG_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49c (svPLA2 homolog) Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2HH_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-R6 (svPLA2 homolog) Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2HI_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-K49a (svPLA2 homolog) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2HJ_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-K49b (svPLA2 homolog) Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
SL9B1_TRIST Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit ... Snaclec family
SL9B2_TRIST Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit ... Snaclec family
SL9B3_TRIST Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit ... Snaclec family
SLA_TRIST Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding protein subunit A ... Snaclec family

1 entry

Vespa bicolor (Black shield wasp)

VKT_VESBI Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor bicolin Venom Kunitz-type family

3 entries

Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2BA_VIPAA Basic phospholipase A2 ammodytoxin A (AtxA) (svPLA2) (EC ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2BB_VIPAA Basic phospholipase A2 ammodytoxin B (AtxB) (svPLA2) (EC ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2BC_VIPAA Basic phospholipase A2 ammodytoxin C (AtxC) (svPLA2) (EC ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Vipera berus berus (Common viper)

PA2B_VIPBB Basic phospholipase A2 Pla2Vb (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

3 entries

Vipera nikolskii (Nikolsky's adder)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2B1_VIPNI Basic phospholipase A2 chain HDP-1P (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B2_VIPNI Basic phospholipase A2 chain HDP-2P (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2H_VIPNI Acidic phospholipase A2 inhibitor chain HPD-1I (svPLA2 homolog) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

2 entries

Vipera renardi (Steppe viper) (Vipera ursinii renardi)

Select_allDeselect_all
PA2A2_VIPRE Acidic phospholipase A2 Vur-PL2B (Vur-PL2) (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
PA2B_VIPRE Basic phospholipase A2 vurtoxin (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...