Voltage-gated chloride channel impairing toxin

Voltage-gated chloride channels (ClC) are found from bacteria to man, and represent a unique family of ion channel proteins not related in sequence or structure to any of the other known families. Nine isoforms of ClC channels in humans are involved in various physiological functions. They are expressed either in the plasma membrane or in the membranes of intracellular organelles. In the plasma membrane, certain ClC channels control the resting potential in muscle and some neurons. Others are involved in the reabsorption of NaCl from the kidney into the bloodstream.

3D-structure view (2PFI ) of the chloride channel protein ClC-Ka.

The ClC channels are homodimeric proteins with an overall rhombus-like shape. Each ClC channel has two pores each contained within a single subunit. The ClC subunit consists of two roughly repeated halves that span the membrane with opposite orientations. This antiparallel architecture defines a chloride selectivity filter within the 15-angstrom neck of an hourglass-shaped pore. Three Cl- binding sites within the selectivity filter stabilize ions by interactions with α-helix dipoles and by chemical interactions with nitrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups of residues in the protein (Dutzler, 2004 and references therein).
Toxins from different taxa that target channels/receptors.
Click on to retrieve toxins of interest.
Human Snake Scorpion Cone
Spider Cnidarian Insect Other All
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN1 - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN2 - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN3 - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN4 - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN5 - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN6 - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN7 - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCNKA - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCNKB - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel All - - - - - -

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

18 entries grouped by species (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

1 entry

Androctonus australis (Sahara scorpion)

CTXL_ANDAU Chlorotoxin-like peptide (AaCtx) Short scorpion toxin ...

1 entry

Androctonus mauritanicus mauritanicus (Scorpion)

CTXL_ANDMA Neurotoxin P2 (AmmP2) Short scorpion toxin ...

2 entries

Hottentotta tamulus sindicus (Scorpion) (Buthus sindicus)

CTXL1_HOTTS Small toxin (Chlorotoxin-like peptide Bs 8) (Bs8) (Peptide I) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL_HOTTS Chlorotoxin-like peptide Bs 14 (Bs14) Short scorpion toxin ...

3 entries

Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus (Yellow scorpion)

CTXL1_LEIQH Toxin GaTx1 Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL8_LEIQH Probable toxin Lqh 8/6 Short scorpion toxin ...
KAX83_LEIQH Gating modifier of anion channels 2 (Leiuropeptide II) (LpII) ... Short scorpion toxin ...

1 entry

Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Egyptian scorpion) (Deathstalker scorpion)

CTXL_LEIQU Chlorotoxin (CTX) (ClTx) Short scorpion toxin ...

5 entries

Mesobuthus eupeus (Lesser Asian scorpion) (Buthus eupeus)

CTX5A_MESEU Insectotoxin-I5A (BeIT5A) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXI1_MESEU Insectotoxin-I1 Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXI3_MESEU Insectotoxin-I3 (BeI3) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXI4_MESEU Insectotoxin-I4 (BeI4) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXI5_MESEU Insectotoxin-I5 (BeI5) Short scorpion toxin ...

2 entries

Mesobuthus martensii (Manchurian scorpion) (Buthus martensii)

CTXLB_MESMA Neurotoxin Bm12-b Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL_MESMA Neurotoxin BmK CT (BmKCT) (Bm-12) (BmKCL1) (CT neurotoxin) ... Short scorpion toxin ...

2 entries

Mesobuthus tamulus (Eastern Indian scorpion) (Buthus tamulus)

CTXL3_MESTA Neurotoxin BtITx3 (Neurotoxin BTChl1) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL_MESTA Lepidopteran-selective toxin (BTChl2) (ButaIT) Short scorpion toxin ...

1 entry

Parabuthus schlechteri (Scorpion)

CTXL1_PARSC Toxin PBITx1 (sITx10) Short scorpion toxin ...