AB hydrolase superfamily, Lipase family

General Lipases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of lipids. They are a subclass of the esterases.

The AB hydrolase superfamily (lipase family) is found in venom of both wasps and snakes.
In snakes (Elapidae and Viperidae), this enzyme (EC 3.1.1.-) catalyses the hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters delivered to lysosomes. The biological contribution of this family to venom activity is unknown (Correa-Netto et al., 2011 ).
In wasps (Vespidae), this enzyme (also called phospholipase A1, EC 3.1.1.32) catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-ester bonds at both the sn-1 and the sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine (Sudprasert et al., 2013 ). It causes local inflammatory reactions and acts as an allergen. It can also cause severe hemolysis with consequent cardiac dysfunction and death (Ho et al., 1993, Ho and Ko, 1988 ). In addition, this enzyme has been reported to activate platelet aggregation and induce thrombosis in vivo (Yang et al., 2008 ). Characterization of these venom proteins is still incomplete, and their biological functions remain unclear.