Ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel impairing toxin (Ryanodine receptor inhibitor)

Channel Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are ion channels that allow for the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum. They are expressed in many different cell types but are best known for their predominance in skeletal and cardiac myocytes, where they are directly involved in excitation-contraction coupling. RyRs are the largest known ion channel, adopting a homotetrameric structure more than 2000 kDa in mass (Kimlicka and Van Petegem, 2011 ). Mammals have three RyR isoforms that are widely expressed in a range of both excitable and nonexcitable cells. Despite their prevalence in a variety of tissues, RyR1 is commonly referred to as the skeletal subtype and RyR2 the cardiac subtype. RyR3 was initially discovered in the brain (McPherson and Campbell, 1990 ) and seems to be the most broadly expressed of the three subtypes (Martin et al., 1998 ).

Toxin
RyR channels Toxins from different taxa that target RyR channels.
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Human Snake Scorpion Cone
snail
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anemone
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Ryanodine receptor RyR1 - - - - -
Ryanodine receptor RyR2 - - - - - -
Ryanodine receptor RyR3 - - - - - -
Ryanodine receptor All - - - - -

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

28 entries grouped by species (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

1 entry

Buthus occitanus israelis (Common yellow scorpion)

SCX8_BUTOS Putative calcium channel toxin Tx758 Not in a family

2 entries

Hadrurus gertschi (Scorpion)

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PA2_HADGE Phospholipase A2 (HgPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Group III heterodimeric ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...
SCXC_HADGE Hadrucalcin (HdCa) Scorpion calcine family

1 entry

Heloderma horridum horridum (Mexican beaded lizard)

CRVP_HELHO Cysteine-rich venom protein helothermine (CRVP HLTx) CRISP family

1 entry

Hemachatus haemachatus (Rinkhals) (Sepedon haemachatus)

CRVP_HEMHA Cysteine-rich venom protein hematin (CRVP) (Fragment) CRISP family

1 entry

Heterometrus fulvipes (Indian black scorpion)

PA2_HETFU Phospholipase A2 large subunit (HfPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Fragment) Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Heterometrus laoticus (Thai giant scorpion)

PA2_HETLA Phospholipase A2 heteromtoxin (HmTx) [Cleaved into: Heteromtoxin ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

2 entries

Hottentotta judaicus (Black scorpion) (Buthotus judaicus)

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KAX96_HOTJU Potassium channel toxin alpha-KTx 9.6 (BjTx-1) (Neurotoxin Tx-1) Short scorpion toxin ...
KAX97_HOTJU Potassium channel toxin alpha-KTx 9.7 (BjTx-2) (Neurotoxin Tx-2) Short scorpion toxin ...

1 entry

Liocheles australasiae (Dwarf wood scorpion)

LAIT1_LIOAU Insecticidal toxin LaIT1 Not in a family

1 entry

Liocheles waigiensis (Australian rainforest scorpion)

TXS2B_LIOWA Phi-liotoxin-Lw1a (Phi-LITX-Lw1a) (U1-liotoxin-Lw1a) ... Not in a family

1 entry

Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion)

SCX6_LYCMC Putative calcium channel toxin 196 (Fragment) Not in a family

1 entry

Mesobuthus eupeus (Lesser Asian scorpion) (Buthus eupeus)

TXL_MESEU Neurotoxin lambda-MeuTx (Calcium channel toxin-like peptide-1) Not in a family

1 entry

Mesobuthus martensii (Manchurian scorpion) (Buthus martensii)

SCXC1_MESMA Toxin BmCa-1 (Calcium channel toxin BmCa1) Not in a family

1 entry

Mesobuthus tamulus (Eastern Indian scorpion) (Buthus tamulus)

PA2_MESTA Phospholipase A2 (MtsPLA2) [Cleaved into: Large subunit (EC ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

2 entries

Naja annulifera (Banded Egyptian cobra) (Naja haje annulifera)

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CRVPA_NAJHA Cysteine-rich venom protein annuliferin-a (CRVP) (Fragment) CRISP family
CRVPB_NAJHA Cysteine-rich venom protein annuliferin-b (CRVP) (Fragment) CRISP family

1 entry

Naja atra (Chinese cobra)

"Naja atra" VenomZone page
CRVP1_NAJAT Cysteine-rich venom protein natrin-1 (Cysteine-rich venom ... CRISP family

1 entry

Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

CRVP1_NAJKA Cysteine-rich venom protein kaouthin-1 (Cysteine-rich venom ... CRISP family

1 entry

Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra)

"Naja mossambica" VenomZone page
CRVP_NAJMO Cysteine-rich venom protein mossambin (CRVP) (Fragment) CRISP family

2 entries

Opistophthalmus carinatus (African yellow leg scorpion)

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SCX1_OPICA Opicalcin-1 (Opicalcine-1) Scorpion calcine family
SCX2_OPICA Opicalcin-2 (Opicalcine-2) Scorpion calcine family

1 entry

Ovophis okinavensis (Ryukyu Island pit viper) (Trimeresurus okinavensis)

CRVP_OVOOK Cysteine-rich venom protein okinavin (CRVP) (Fragment) CRISP family

2 entries

Pandinus imperator (Emperor scorpion)

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IPTXA_PANIM Imperatoxin-A (IpTxa) (Imperatoxin activator) Scorpion calcine family
IPTXI_PANIM Phospholipase A2 imperatoxin-1 (Imperatoxin I) (IpTx1) (IpTxi) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Taiwan habu) (Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus)

CRVP_PROMU Cysteine-rich venom protein (TM-CRVP) CRISP family

1 entry

Scorpio palmatus (Israeli golden scorpion) (Scorpio maurus palmatus)

SCXC_SCOPA Maurocalcin (MCa) (Maurocalcine) Scorpion calcine family

1 entry

Urodacus yaschenkoi (Inland robust scorpion)

"Urodacus yaschenkoi" VenomZone page
SCXC_UROYA Calcium-channel toxin-like 20 Scorpion calcine family