Blood coagulation cascade activating toxin

The blood coagulation cascade (Fig.1) is a series of reactions, in which a zymogen (inactive enzyme precursor) of a serine protease and its glycoprotein co-factor are activated and then catalyze the next reaction in the cascade, ultimately resulting in cross-linked fibrin.

The coagulation factors are principally serine proteases, which act by cleaving downstream proteins. There are some exceptions. For example, FVIII and FV are non-enzymatic oxidases, and Factor XIII is a transglutaminase. The coagulation factors circulate as inactive zymogens. The coagulation cascade is classically divided into three pathways. The tissue factor and contact activation pathways both activate the final common pathway of factor X, thrombin and fibrin.

    Figure 1: Blood coagulation cascade (Image from
    Wikimedia / licensed under Creative Commons ).

Venom blood coagulation cascade activating toxins activate components of the blood coagulation cascade and cause an imbalance in hemostasis.

See also UniProt-keyword

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

113 entries grouped by species (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

1 entry

Agkistrodon bilineatus (Cantil) (Tropical moccasin)

VSP2_AGKBI Thrombin-like enzyme bilineobin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (Southern copperhead)

"Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix" VenomZone page
VSP2_AGKCO Thrombin-like enzyme contortrixobin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (Broad-banded copperhead) (Agkistrodon mokasen laticinctus)

VM3AD_AGKCL Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like ACLD (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

1 entry

Bitis gabonica (Gaboon adder) (Gaboon viper)

VSPG_BITGA Thrombin-like enzyme gabonase (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.55) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Bombus ignitus (Bumblebee)

VSP_BOMIG Venom serine protease Bi-VSP (EC 3.4.21.-) (Thrombin-like ... Peptidase S1 family, CLIP ...

1 entry

Bothrocophias andianus (Andean lancehead) (Bothrops andianus)

VSP1_BOTAN Thrombin-like enzyme TLBan (SVTLE TLBan) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Bothrops alternatus (Urutu) (Rhinocerophis alternatus)

VSPBH_BOTAL Thrombin-like enzyme bhalternin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)

Select_allDeselect_all "Bothrops asper" VenomZone page
VM3BA_BOTAS Snake venom metalloproteinase basparin-A (SVMP) (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VSPL_BOTAS Thrombin-like enzyme asperase (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Bothrops atrox (Barba amarilla) (Fer-de-lance)

Select_allDeselect_all
VPA_BOTAT Venom prothrombin activator (vPA) (Fragment) Not in a family
VSPF_BOTAT Thrombin-like enzyme batroxobin (BX) (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Bothrops barnetti (Barnett's lancehead) (Trimeresurus barnetti)

VSP_BOTBA Thrombin-like enzyme barnettobin (Bb-TLE) (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Bothrops erythromelas (Caatinga lance head)

VM3BE_BOTER Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like berythractivase (EC ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

1 entry

Bothrops insularis (Golden lancehead) (Lachesis insularis)

VM2IA_BOTIN Zinc metalloproteinase/disintegrin [Cleaved into: Snake venom ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

6 entries

Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)

Select_allDeselect_all
VM1BJ_BOTJA Snake venom metalloproteinase bothrojaractivase (SVMP) (EC ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VSP2_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme KN-BJ 2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPA_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme bothrombin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) (Factor ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPT1_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 1 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPT2_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPT3_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 3 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

3 entries

Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)

Select_allDeselect_all "Bothrops jararacussu" VenomZone page
VSP1_BOTJR Thrombin-like enzyme BjussuSP-1 (SVTLE BjussuSP-1) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP48_BOTJR Thrombin-like enzyme BJ-48 (SVTLE BJ-48) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPDV_BOTJR Thrombin-like enzyme D-V (SVTLE D-V) (EC 3.4.21.-) (Clotting ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Bothrops leucurus (Whitetail lancehead)

VSPL_BOTLC Thrombin-like enzyme leucurobin (Leuc) (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Bothrops marajoensis (Marajo lancehead)

VSP1_BOTMA Thrombin-like enzyme TLBm (SVTLE TLBm) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) (Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis)

VSP1_BOTPA Thrombin-like enzyme BpSP-1 (SVTLE BpSP-1) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Bothrops pirajai (Piraja's lance0 head)

Select_allDeselect_all "Bothrops pirajai" VenomZone page
VSP27_BOTPI Thrombin-like enzyme BpirSP27 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP41_BOTPI Thrombin-like enzyme BpirSP41 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) (Agkistrodon rhodostoma)

VSPF2_CALRH Thrombin-like enzyme ancrod-2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

4 entries

Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSPAA_CERCE Snake venom serine protease Afaacytin alpha/beta/beta' chains ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPA_CERCE Thrombin-like enzyme cerastotin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPF_CERCE Thrombin-like enzyme RP34 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPP_CERCE Thrombin-like enzyme cerastocytin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Cerastes vipera (Sahara sand viper)

VSPCE_CERVI Thrombin-like enzyme cerastobin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Crotalus adamanteus (Eastern diamondback rattlesnake)

"Crotalus adamanteus" VenomZone page
VSPCR_CROAD Thrombin-like enzyme crotalase (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Crotalus atrox (Western diamondback rattlesnake)

VSPC1_CROAT Thrombin-like enzyme catroxobin-1 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Crotalus durissus cascavella (Northeastern Brazilian rattlesnake)

VSP_CRODC Thrombin-like enzyme F202 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Brazilian rattlesnake)

VSP1_CRODO Thrombin-like enzyme collinein-1 (SVTLE collinein-1) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family

2 entries

Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American rattlesnake)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSP1_CRODM Thrombin-like enzyme Cdc SI (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP2_CRODM Thrombin-like enzyme Cdc SII (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

4 entries

Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSP13_CRODU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin B1.3 (SVTLE gyroxin B1.3) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP14_CRODU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin B1.4 (SVTLE gyroxin B1.4) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP17_CRODU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin B1.7 (SVTLE gyroxin B1.7) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP21_CRODU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin B2.1 (SVTLE gyroxin B2.1) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Cryptophis nigrescens (Eastern small-eyed snake) (Rhinoplocephalus nigrescens)

FAXD_CRYNI Venom prothrombin activator nigrarin-D (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera russelii)

Select_allDeselect_all
VKTK1_DABRR Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor DrKIn-I (Daboia russelii ... Venom Kunitz-type family
VM3CX_DABRR Coagulation factor X-activating enzyme heavy chain (EC ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

5 entries

Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) (Daboia russelii siamensis)

Select_allDeselect_all
SLLC1_DABSI Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme light chain 1 ... Snaclec family
SLLC2_DABSI Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme light chain 2 ... Snaclec family
VM3CX_DABSI Coagulation factor X-activating enzyme heavy chain (EC ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VSPA_DABSI Factor V activator RVV-V alpha (EC 3.4.21.95) (Russel's viper ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPG_DABSI Factor V activator RVV-V gamma (EC 3.4.21.95) (Russel's viper ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

4 entries

Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) (Agkistrodon acutus)

Select_allDeselect_all
VM1PA_DEIAC Snake venom metalloproteinase AaPA (SVMP) (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VSP1_DEIAC Thrombin-like enzyme acutobin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP2_DEIAC Thrombin-like enzyme acutobin-2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) (Acutobin ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPA_DEIAC Thrombin-like enzyme acutin (SVTLE acutin) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Demansia vestigiata (Lesser black whip snake) (Demansia atra)

Select_allDeselect_all
FAXD1_DEMVE Venom prothrombin activator vestarin-D1 (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
FAXD2_DEMVE Venom prothrombin activator vestarin-D2 (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

4 entries

Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled viper)

Select_allDeselect_all
SL114_ECHCA Snaclec carinactivase-1 regulatory subunit 14 kDa chain (CA-1 14 ... Snaclec family
SL117_ECHCA Snaclec carinactivase-1 regulatory subunit 17 kDa chain (CA-1 17 ... Snaclec family
VM3C1_ECHCA Zinc metalloproteinase carinactivase-1 catalytic subunit (CA-1 ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VM3E_ECHCA Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like ecarin (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

2 entries

Echis multisquamatus (Central Asian sand viper)

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SLR_ECHML Snaclec multactivase regulatory subunit (Fragment) Snaclec family
VM3M_ECHML Zinc metalloproteinase multactivase catalytic subunit (EC ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

2 entries

Echis ocellatus (Ocellated saw-scaled viper)

Select_allDeselect_all "Echis ocellatus" VenomZone page
VM3E2_ECHOC Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like EoVMP2 (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VM3E6_ECHOC Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like EoMP06 (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

1 entry

Gloydius brevicaudus (Korean slamosa snake) (Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus)

VSP1_GLOBR Thrombin-like enzyme kangshuanmei (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Gloydius saxatilis (Rock mamushi) (Gloydius intermedius saxatilis)

VSPSX_GLOSA Thrombin-like enzyme saxthrombin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Gloydius shedaoensis (Shedao island pit viper) (Agkistrodon shedaoensis)

VSPGL_GLOSH Thrombin-like enzyme gloshedobin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

3 entries

Gloydius ussuriensis (Ussuri mamushi) (Gloydius blomhoffii ussuriensis)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSP1_GLOUS Thrombin-like enzyme calobin-1 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) (Calobin I) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP2_GLOUS Thrombin-like enzyme calobin-2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) (Calobin ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPE2_GLOUS Thrombin-like enzyme CPI-enzyme 2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Hoplocephalus stephensii (Stephens' banded snake)

FAXD_HOPST Venom prothrombin activator hopsarin-D (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Lachesis muta muta (Bushmaster)

VSPF_LACMU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin analog (LM-TL) (SVTLE) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Lachesis muta rhombeata (Bushmaster)

VSPF_LACMR Thrombin-like enzyme LMR-47 (SVTLE LM-47) (SVTLE LMR-47) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

4 entries

Macrovipera lebetina (Levantine viper) (Vipera lebetina)

Select_allDeselect_all
SLLC1_MACLB Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme light chain 1 (VL ... Snaclec family
SLLC2_MACLB Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme light chain 2 (VL ... Snaclec family
VM3CX_MACLB Coagulation factor X-activating enzyme heavy chain (EC ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VSPF5_MACLB Factor V activator (FVA) (VLFVA) (EC 3.4.21.95) (Lebetina viper ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Micropechis ikaheca (New Guinean small-eyed snake)

VM3_MICIK Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like mikarin (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

1 entry

Naja naja (Indian cobra)

VSP_NAJNA Thrombin-like enzyme TLP (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Notechis scutatus niger (Peninsula tiger snake) (Notechis ater niger)

FAXD_NOTSN Venom prothrombin activator notanarin-D (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Notechis scutatus scutatus (Mainland tiger snake) (Common tiger snake)

Select_allDeselect_all
FAXD1_NOTSC Venom prothrombin activator notecarin-D1 (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
FAXD2_NOTSC Venom prothrombin activator notecarin-D2 (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Ovophis okinavensis (Ryukyu Island pit viper) (Trimeresurus okinavensis)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSP1_OVOOK Thrombin-like enzyme okinaxobin-1 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP2_OVOOK Thrombin-like enzyme okinaxobin-2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Oxyuranus microlepidotus (Inland taipan)

Select_allDeselect_all
FA5V_OXYMI Venom prothrombin activator omicarin-C non-catalytic subunit ... Multicopper oxidase family
FAXC_OXYMI Venom prothrombin activator omicarin-C catalytic subunit (vPA) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Oxyuranus scutellatus (Coastal taipan)

Select_allDeselect_all
FA5V_OXYSU Venom prothrombin activator oscutarin-C non-catalytic subunit ... Multicopper oxidase family
FAXC_OXYSU Venom prothrombin activator oscutarin-C catalytic subunit (vPA) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Protobothrops elegans (Elegant pitviper) (Trimeresurus elegans)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSP1_PROEL Thrombin-like enzyme elegaxobin-1 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP2_PROEL Thrombin-like enzyme elegaxobin-2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

2 entries

Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus flavoviridis)

Select_allDeselect_all
VM3H1_PROFL Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like HV1 (EC 3.4.24.-) (Snake ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VSP1_PROFL Thrombin-like enzyme flavoxobin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Protobothrops jerdonii (Jerdon's pitviper) (Trimeresurus jerdonii)

VSP_PROJR Thrombin-like enzyme jerdonobin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Pseudechis porphyriacus (Red-bellied black snake)

FAXD_PSEPO Venom prothrombin activator porpharin-D (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

4 entries

Pseudonaja textilis (Eastern brown snake)

Select_allDeselect_all "Pseudonaja textilis" VenomZone page
FA5V_PSETE Venom prothrombin activator pseutarin-C non-catalytic subunit ... Multicopper oxidase family
FAXC_PSETE Venom prothrombin activator pseutarin-C catalytic subunit (PCCS) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
PA2A1_PSETE Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...
PA2A2_PSETE Acidic phospholipase A2 2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

4 entries

Trimeresurus albolabris (White-lipped pit viper) (Cryptelytrops albolabris)

Select_allDeselect_all
VSP1_TRIAB Thrombin-like enzyme 1 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSP2_TRIAB Thrombin-like enzyme 2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPAL_TRIAB Thrombin-like enzyme albolabrase (SVTLE albolabrase) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...
VSPC_TRIAB Thrombin-like enzyme chitribrisin (SVTLE chitribrisin) (EC ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (Mangrove pit viper) (Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus)

VSPP_TRIPP Thrombin-like enzyme purpurase (SVTLE purpurase) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree viper) (Viridovipera stejnegeri)

VSPST_TRIST Thrombin-like enzyme stejnobin (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

1 entry

Tropidechis carinatus (Australian rough-scaled snake)

FAXD_TROCA Venom prothrombin activator trocarin-D (vPA) (EC 3.4.21.6) ... Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom ...

5 entries

Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)

Select_allDeselect_all
SL1C1_VIPAA Snaclec factor X-activator 1 light chain 1 (VAFXA-I LC1) ... Snaclec family
SL1C2_VIPAA Snaclec factor X-activator 1 light chain 2 (VAFXA-I LC2) ... Snaclec family
SL2C1_VIPAA Snaclec factor X-activator 2 light chain 1 (VAFXA-I LC1) ... Snaclec family
SL2C2_VIPAA Snaclec factor X-activator 2 light chain 2 (VAFXA-II LC2) ... Snaclec family
VM3FA_VIPAA Factor X-activator 1 heavy chain (VAFXA-I HC) (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...

1 entry

Vipera aspis aspis (Aspic viper)

SLLC2_VIPAP Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme light chain 2 ... Snaclec family