G-protein coupled receptor impairing toxin (GPCR regulator)

Receptor G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins constituted of seven transmembrane segments linked by three external and three internal loops. GPCRs constitute the largest family of membrane proteins. They transduce external stimuli into the cell and control almost all physiological processes in humans (Jacoby et al., 2006 ).
Toxin G-protein coupled receptor impairing toxins can be divided into two families. The first family mimics the natural agonists of the targeted receptor: vasopressin/oxytocin (see cone snail conopressins ), endothelin (see snake sarafotoxins ) and neurotensin (see cone snail contulakins ). The second family consists of highly reticulated toxins with folds that are unrelated to any natural ligands and regroups all other GPCR impairing toxins.

Receptor families Receptor Venom proteins that target receptors.
Click on to retrieve receptors and toxins of interest.
Human Snake Scorpion Cone
snail
Spider Cnidarian Insect Other All
Adrenergic
receptor
- - -
Bradykinin
receptor
- - -
Cholecystokinin
receptor
- - - - - -
Endothelin
receptor
- - - - - -
Dopamine
receptor
- - - - - -
Glucagon-like peptide receptor - - - - - -
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - - - - - -
Neurotensin
receptor
- - - - - -
Opioid
receptor
- - - - -
Somatostatin
receptor
- - - - - -
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - - - - - -
Vasopressin/oxytocin receptor - - - - - -
GPCR All -

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

107 entries grouped by species (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

1 entry

Agkistrodon bilineatus (Cantil) (Tropical moccasin)

BKIP_AGKBI Bradykinin inhibitor peptide (BIP) Bradykinin inhibitor peptide ...

1 entry

Atractaspis bibronii (Bibron's mole viper) (Southern stiletto snake)

SRTXB_ATRBI Bibrotoxin (BTX) Endothelin/sarafotoxin family

2 entries

Atractaspis engaddensis (Israeli burrowing asp) (Israeli mole viper)

Select_allDeselect_all
SRTXD_ATREN Sarafotoxin-D (SRTX-D) (S6D) Endothelin/sarafotoxin family
SRTX_ATREN Sarafotoxin [Cleaved into: Sarafotoxin-A, Ser-isoform (SRTX-A) ... Endothelin/sarafotoxin family

2 entries

Atractaspis irregularis (Variable burrowing asp) (Elaps irregularis)

Select_allDeselect_all
SRTX1_ATRIR Sarafotoxin-i1 (SRTX-i1) (Sarafotoxin-i3) (SRTX-i3) Endothelin/sarafotoxin family
SRTX2_ATRIR Sarafotoxin-i2 (SRTX-i2) Endothelin/sarafotoxin family

1 entry

Atractaspis microlepidota microlepidota

SRTXL_ATRMM Long-sarafotoxin (L-SRTX) [Cleaved into: Sarafotoxin-m (SRTX-m); ... Endothelin/sarafotoxin family

1 entry

Bothrops insularis (Golden lancehead) (Lachesis insularis)

BNP_BOTIN Bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptides ... Bradykinin-potentiating peptide ...

3 entries

Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)

Select_allDeselect_all
BNP1_BOTJA Bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptides ... Bradykinin-potentiating peptide ...
BNP2_BOTJA Bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic peptides (Brain ... Bradykinin-potentiating peptide ...
BPP7A_BOTJA Bradykinin-potentiating peptide 7a (BPP-7a) (Proline-rich ... Bradykinin-potentiating peptide ...

5 entries

Bungarus multicinctus (Many-banded krait)

Select_allDeselect_all "Bungarus multicinctus" VenomZone page
3NO52_BUNMU Long neurotoxin homolog NTL2 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3NO56_BUNMU Long neurotoxin homolog TA-bm16 (Delta-protein) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3NO5I_BUNMU Gamma-bungarotoxin (Long neurotoxin homolog NTL2I) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3NOHE_BUNMU Muscarinic toxin BM14 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SO8_BUNMU Muscarinic toxin-like protein Snake three-finger toxin family, ...

2 entries

Buthus occitanus israelis (Common yellow scorpion)

Select_allDeselect_all
LV1A_BUTOS Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain (BoiLVP1-alpha) ... Long (3 C-C) scorpion toxin ...
LV1B_BUTOS Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-beta chain (BoiLVP1-beta) ... Lipo-B family

2 entries

Buthus occitanus tunetanus (Common European scorpion)

Select_allDeselect_all
LV1A_BUTOC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain (BotLVP1-alpha) ... Long (3 C-C) scorpion toxin ...
LV1B_BUTOC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-beta chain (BotLVP1-beta) ... Lipo-B family

1 entry

Conus consors (Singed cone)

"Conus consors" VenomZone page
CT5A_CONCN Conopeptide CnVA (Tau-CnVA) Conotoxin T superfamily

2 entries

Conus geographus (Geography cone) (Nubecula geographus)

Select_allDeselect_all
CESS_CONGE Conophysin-conopressin [Cleaved into: Conopressin-G ... Vasopressin/oxytocin family
CONG_CONGE Contulakin-G (CGX-1160) Conotoxin C superfamily

2 entries

Conus litteratus (Lettered cone)

Select_allDeselect_all "Conus litteratus" VenomZone page
CON1_CONLT Contulakin-Lt1 Conotoxin C superfamily
CON2_CONLT Contulakin-Lt2 Conotoxin C superfamily

1 entry

Conus lividus (Livid cone)

CT32_CONLI Conotoxin LiC32 Conotoxin T superfamily

1 entry

Conus radiatus (Rayed cone)

CXPH_CONRA Conophysin-R Vasopressin/oxytocin family

1 entry

Conus regius (Crown cone)

CA1A_CONRE Alpha-conotoxin RgIA (Fragment) Conotoxin A superfamily

1 entry

Conus striatus (Striated cone)

CONO_CONST Conopressin-S (Con-S) (Arg-conopressin S) Vasopressin/oxytocin family

1 entry

Conus textile (Cloth-of-gold cone)

"Conus textile" VenomZone page
CONO_CONTE Conopressin Vasopressin/oxytocin family

2 entries

Conus tulipa (Fish-hunting cone snail) (Tulip cone)

Select_allDeselect_all
CA1A_CONTU Rho-conotoxin TIA (Rho-TIA) Conotoxin A superfamily
CONOT_CONTU Conopressin-T Vasopressin/oxytocin family

1 entry

Conus villepinii (Villepin's cone)

CONOV_CONVL Gamma-conopressin vil Vasopressin/oxytocin family

1 entry

Crotalus atrox (Western diamondback rattlesnake)

BKIP_CROAT Bradykinin inhibitor peptide (BIP) Bradykinin inhibitor peptide ...

1 entry

Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake)

PA1A_CRODU Phospholipase A2 homolog crotoxin acid subunit CA (CTX subunit ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group ...

1 entry

Crotalus viridis viridis (Prairie rattlesnake)

BKIP_CROVV Bradykinin inhibitor peptide (BIP) Bradykinin inhibitor peptide ...

3 entries

Cyphononyx dorsalis (Spider wasp) (Cyphononyx fulvognathus)

Select_allDeselect_all
BRK6_CYPDO Cd-146 peptide Bradykinin-related peptide ...
BRKC_CYPDO Cyphokinin [Cleaved into: [Thr6]-bradykinin] Bradykinin-related peptide ...
BRKF_CYPDO Fulvonin Bradykinin-related peptide ...

12 entries

Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) (Naja angusticeps)

Select_allDeselect_all
3SI12_DENAN Muscarinic m1-toxin2 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SI13_DENAN Muscarinic m1-toxin3 (Fragment) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SI14_DENAN Muscarinic m1-toxin4 (Fragment) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SI1A_DENAN Toxin AdTx1 (Rho-elapitoxin-Da1a) (Rho-Da1a) (Rho-EPTX-Da1a) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SI1B_DENAN Rho-elapitoxin-Da1b (Rho-EPTX-Da1b) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIM1_DENAN Three-finger muscarinic toxin 1 (MT1) (MTx1) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIM2_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 2 (MT2) (MTx2) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIM3_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIM4_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 4 (MT4) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIM7_DENAN Three-finger muscarinic toxin 7 (MT-7) (MT7) (Muscarinic ... Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SUB_DENAN Muscarinic m2-toxin Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
MAMB1_DENAN Mambaquaretin-1 (MQ-1) Venom Kunitz-type family

4 entries

Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black mamba)

Select_allDeselect_all
3SI3_DENPO Adrenergic toxin rho-elapitoxin-Dp1b (rho-EPTX-Dp1b) (Muscarinic ... Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIMA_DENPO Muscarinic toxin alpha (MT-alpha) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIMB_DENPO Adrenergic toxin rho-elapitoxin-Dp1a (rho-EPTX-Dp1a) (Muscarinic ... Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
MIT1_DENPO Toxin MIT1 (MIT 1) (Black mamba intestinal toxin 1) (Black mamba ... AVIT (prokineticin) family

3 entries

Heloderma horridum horridum (Mexican beaded lizard)

Select_allDeselect_all
EXE1_HELHO Exendin-1 (Helospectin-1) (VIP-like 1) [Cleaved into: Exendin-1b ... Glucagon family
EXE3_HELHO Exendin-3 (Glucagon-like 3) Glucagon family
HKS_HELHO Helokinestatin-1 (Helokinestatin) Not in a family

3 entries

Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster)

Select_allDeselect_all
EXE1_HELSU Exendin-1 (Helospectin I) (Helospectin-1) (VIP-like 1) [Cleaved ... Glucagon family
EXE2_HELSU Exendin-2-long [Cleaved into: Exendin-2 (Helodermin) (VIP-like ... Glucagon family
EXE4_HELSU Exendin-4 (Exenatide) Glucagon family

3 entries

Heloderma suspectum cinctum (Banded Gila monster)

Select_allDeselect_all
EXE2_HELSC Exendin-2-long [Cleaved into: Exendin-2 (Helodermin) (VIP-like ... Glucagon family
EXE4_HELSC Exendin-4 Glucagon family
VNHP_HELSC Natriuretic and helokinestatin peptides [Cleaved into: ... Natriuretic peptide family

1 entry

Heloderma suspectum suspectum (Reticulate Gila monster)

HKS_HELSS Helokinestatin-1 Not in a family

1 entry

Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Mediterranean black widow spider) (Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus)

LATA_LATTR Alpha-latrotoxin-Lt1a (Alpha-LTX-Lt1a) (Alpha-latrotoxin) ... Latrotoxin superfamily, ...

6 entries

Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion)

Select_allDeselect_all
LV1A1_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain (LVP1-alpha) ... Long (3 C-C) scorpion toxin ...
LV1A2_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain (LVP1-alpha) [Cleaved ... Long (3 C-C) scorpion toxin ...
LV1B1_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-beta chain (LVP1-beta) ... Lipo-B family
LV1B2_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-beta chain (LVP1-beta) Lipo-B family
LVPAH_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain (LVP1-alpha) ... Long (3 C-C) scorpion toxin ...
LVPAY_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain (LVP1-alpha) [Cleaved ... Long (3 C-C) scorpion toxin ...

1 entry

Lycosa erythrognatha (Spider) (Scaptocosa raptoria)

KLPS_LYCER Kinin-like peptide-S (Fragment) Bradykinin-related peptide ...

1 entry

Megascolia flavifrons (Garden dagger wasp) (Solitary wasp)

BRK_MEGFL Megascoliakinin ([Thr6]-bradykinin-Lys-Ala) [Cleaved into: ... Bradykinin-related peptide ...

1 entry

Meiacanthus atrodorsalis (Forktail blenny) (Petroscirtes atrodorsalis)

PENKV_MEIAT Proenkephalin-A (Proenkephalin) [Cleaved into: Synenkephalin; ... Opioid neuropeptide precursor ...

3 entries

Mesobuthus martensii (Manchurian scorpion) (Buthus martensii)

Select_allDeselect_all
LV1A_MESMA Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain (BmLVP1-alpha) ... Long (3 C-C) scorpion toxin ...
LV1B_MESMA HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor bumarsin (JCH2) ... Lipo-B family
YA_MESMA BmK-YA precursor [Cleaved into: BmK-YA 1 (Enkephalin-like ... Not in a family

1 entry

Micrurus lemniscatus (South American coral snake)

3X_MICLE Muscarinic toxin Mlalpha (MT-Mlalpha) (Fragment) Snake three-finger toxin family

2 entries

Naja atra (Chinese cobra)

Select_allDeselect_all "Naja atra" VenomZone page
3SO8_NAJAT Neurotoxin homolog NL1 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
PA2A1_NAJAT Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (Muscarinic ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

3 entries

Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

Select_allDeselect_all
3NO2_NAJKA Tryptophan-containing weak neurotoxin (WTX) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SO8_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 3 (MTLP-3) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SUC1_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 1 (MTLP-1) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...

1 entry

Naja naja (Indian cobra)

3SO8_NAJNA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 1 (MTLP-1) (Muscarinic toxin-like ... Snake three-finger toxin family, ...

1 entry

Naja sputatrix (Malayan spitting cobra) (Naja naja sputatrix)

PA2NA_NAJSP Neutral phospholipase A2 muscarinic inhibitor (NPLA) (svPLA2) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...

9 entries

Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)

Select_allDeselect_all
3SDC1_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX21 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SDC3_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX23 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SDC4_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX14 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SDC5_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX15 (OH-84) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SDC7_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX27 (OH-27) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SDC9_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX9 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SI35_OPHHA Short neurotoxin OH-35 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIM6_OPHHA Muscarinic toxin MTX6 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SIM8_OPHHA Muscarinic toxin 38 (MTX38) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...

1 entry

Parapolybia indica (Lesser paper wasp)

BRK_PARID Waspkinin Bradykinin-related peptide ...

1 entry

Polistes major (Neotropical social wasp)

BRK_POLMJ Wasp kinin PMM1 Bradykinin-related peptide ...

1 entry

Protopolybia exigua (Neotropical social wasp)

BRK1_PROEX Protopolybiakinin-1 (Protopolybiakinin-I) Bradykinin-related peptide ...

1 entry

Synanceia verrucosa (Reef stonefish)

VTXB_SYNVE Verrucotoxin subunit beta (VTX subunit beta) SNTX/VTX toxin family

2 entries

Tityus serrulatus (Brazilian scorpion)

Select_allDeselect_all "Tityus serrulatus" VenomZone page
NDBH1_TITSE Hypotensin-1 (Hypotensin I) (TsHpt-I) [Cleaved into: ... Non-disulfide-bridged peptide ...
NDBH2_TITSE Hypotensin-2 (Hypotensin II) (TsHpt-II) [Cleaved into: ... Non-disulfide-bridged peptide ...

3 entries

Varanus varius (Lace monitor)

Select_allDeselect_all
CCT1_VARVA Cholecystoxin (Cholecystoxin-Vvar1) [Cleaved into: ... Gastrin/cholecystokinin family
VAR1_VARVA AVIToxin-VAR1 AVIT (prokineticin) family
VAR2_VARVA AVIToxin-VAR2 AVIT (prokineticin) family

1 entry

Vespa mandarinia (Asian giant hornet)

BRK_VESMA Vespakinin-M Bradykinin-related peptide ...

1 entry

Vespa xanthoptera (Japanese yellow hornet) (Vespa simillima xanthoptera)

BRK_VESXA Vespakinin-X Bradykinin-related peptide ...

1 entry

Vespula maculifrons (Eastern yellow jacket) (Wasp)

BRK_VESMC Vespulakinin-1 [Cleaved into: Vespulakinin-2] Bradykinin-related peptide ...