Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra)

Venom composition image
Figure 1: Venom proteome composition of Naja kaouthia, studied at proteomic level. A. from North-East India (Kakati et al., 2022), and B. from Thailand (Laustsen et al., 2015).
In the study of Kakati and colleagues (2022), the venom proteome is deciphered using the LC-MS/MS analysis of either the SDS-PAGE bands or the RP-HPLC peaks. Since venom proteomes obtained by these approaches are quite similar, only the venom proteome deciphered from the LC-MS/MS analysis of the SDS-PAGE bands is shown here. The major differences found with the LC-MS/MS analysis of RP-HPLC peaks are the lack of detection of 5'-NUC (5'-nucleotidase), PDE (phosphodiesterase), Cystatin, PLB (phospholipase B), and aminopeptidase, and an important detection (8%) of natriuretic peptides.

This venom contains the following families: 3FTXs (three-finger toxin), PA2 (phospholipase A2), SVMP (venom metalloproteinase), CVF (cobra venom factor), CRISP, 5'-NUC (5'-nucleotidase), PDE (phosphodiesterase), LAAO (flavin monoamine oxidase (L-amino acid oxidase)), NGF, Cystatin, VES (ohanin/vespryn), PLB (phospholipase B), aminopeptidase, AchE (acetylcholine esterase) (Kakati et al., 2022).

Two studies indicate that the proportion of neurotoxins of the three-finger toxin family are present in the venom at a higher percentage (55-70%) compared to cytotoxins (30-45%) (Laustsen et al., 2015 and Liu et al., 2017).

Clinical Effects, Treatment, Antivenoms See the Clinical Toxinology Resources Website
Lethal dose LD(50) is 0.24 mg/kg when intravenously injected into mice (Laustsen et al., 2015).
LD(50) is 0.34 mg/kg when subcutaneously injected into mice (Liu et al., 2017).

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

(all links/actions below point to uniprot.org website)

34 entries grouped by family (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

3 entries

CRISP family

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CRVP1_NAJKA Cysteine-rich venom protein kaouthin-1 ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
CRVP2_NAJKA Cysteine-rich venom protein kaouthin-2 ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
CRVPO_NAJKA Cysteine-rich venom protein 24 (CRVP-24k) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Cystatin family

"Cystatin family" VenomZone page
CYT_NAJKA Cystatin Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Flavin monoamine oxidase family, FIG1 subfamily

"Flavin monoamine oxidase family" VenomZone page
OXLA_NAJKA L-amino-acid oxidase (K-LAO) (LAAO) (EC 1.4.3.2) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

NGF-beta family

"NGF-beta family" VenomZone page
NGFV_NAJKA Venom nerve growth factor (v-NGF) (vNGF) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Ohanin/vespryn family

VESP_NAJKA Thaicobrin Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

2 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group I subfamily, D49 sub-subfamily

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PA2A1_NAJKA Acidic phospholipase A2 CM-II (CM 2) (svPLA2) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
PA2A2_NAJKA Acidic phospholipase A2 2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

4 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Ancestral subfamily, Orphan group II sub-subfamily

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3NO21_NAJKA Neurotoxin Nk-3FTx (Fragment) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3NO29_NAJKA Weak toxin CM-9a Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3NO2N_NAJKA Weak toxin NWT Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3NO2_NAJKA Tryptophan-containing weak neurotoxin (WTX) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Long-chain subfamily, Type II alpha-neurotoxin sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3L21_NAJKA Alpha-cobratoxin (Alpha-CT) (Alpha-CbT) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3SX_NAJKA Nakoroxin (Naja kaouthia orphan toxin) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Orphan group VIII (haditoxin) sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3SO8_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 3 (MTLP-3) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Orphan group XV sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3SOFH_NAJKA Cytotoxin homolog (Cytotoxin-like basic protein) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

2 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Type C muscarinic toxin sub-subfamily

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3SUC1_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 1 (MTLP-1) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3SUC2_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 2 (MTLP-2) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

5 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Type I alpha-neurotoxin sub-subfamily

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3S1B1_NAJKA Short neurotoxin 1 (Toxin C-6) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3S1B2_NAJKA Cobrotoxin II (CBT II) (CBT2) (Short neurotoxin ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3S1B_NAJKA Cobrotoxin-b (CBT-b) (Short neurotoxin III) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3S1CB_NAJKA Cobrotoxin (CBT) (Short neurotoxin I) (NT1) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3S1C_NAJKA Cobrotoxin-c (CBT-c) (Short neurotoxin II) (NT2) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

7 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Type IA cytotoxin sub-subfamily

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3SA1_NAJKA Cytotoxin 1 (NK-CT1) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3SA2_NAJKA Cytotoxin 2 Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3SA3_NAJKA Cytotoxin 3 (CX3) (Toxin CM-7) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3SA4_NAJKA Cytotoxin 4 (Cytotoxin IV) (Siamextin) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3SA5_NAJKA Cytotoxin 5 (Cytotoxin II) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3SA7A_NAJKA Cytotoxin 2 (CX2) (Toxin CM-7A) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3SA8_NAJKA Cytotoxin 1 (CTX1) (CX1) (Cardiotoxin F8) ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Venom complement C3 homolog family

"Venom complement C3 homolog family" VenomZone page
VCO3_NAJKA Cobra venom factor (CVF) (CVFk) (Complement C3 ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

2 entries

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-III subfamily, P-IIIa sub-subfamily

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VM3K_NAJKA Hemorrhagic metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
VM3_NAJKA Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like cobrin ... Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)