Blood coagulation cascade inhibiting toxin

The blood coagulation cascade (Fig.1) is a series of reactions, in which a zymogen (inactive enzyme precursor) of a serine protease and its glycoprotein co-factor are activated and then catalyze the next reaction in the cascade, ultimately resulting in cross-linked fibrin.

The coagulation factors are principally serine proteases, which act by cleaving downstream proteins. There are some exceptions. For example, FVIII and FV are non-enzymatic oxidases, and Factor XIII is a transglutaminase. The coagulation factors circulate as inactive zymogens. The coagulation cascade is classically divided into three pathways. The tissue factor and contact activation pathways both activate the final common pathway of factor X, thrombin and fibrin.

    Figure 1: Blood coagulation cascade (Image from
    Wikimedia / licensed under Creative Commons ).

Venom blood coagulation cascade inhibiting toxins inhibit components of the blood coagulation cascade and cause an imbalance in the hemostasis.

See also UniProt-keyword

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

113 entries grouped by family (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

1 entry

Not in a family

XI_DEIAC Coagulation factor X inhibitor (Fragment) Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...

6 entries

Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom subfamily

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VSPCA_AGKBI Protein C activator (EC 3.4.21.-) (Snake venom ... Agkistrodon bilineatus (Cantil) (Tropical ...
VSPCA_AGKCO Protein C activator (EC 3.4.21.-) (ACC-C) (Snake ... Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (Southern ...
VSPCA_AGKPL Protein C activator (APL-C) (EC 3.4.21.-) (Snake ... Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (Western ...
VSPCA_GLOHA Protein C activator (EC 3.4.21.-) (Snake venom ... Gloydius halys (Chinese water mocassin) ...
VSPF1_CALRH Thrombin-like enzyme ancrod (SVTLE) (EC ... Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) ...
VSPH1_VIPAA Vaa serine proteinase homolog 1 (VaaSPH-1) ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)

1 entry

Phospholipase A2 family

"Phospholipase A2 family" VenomZone page
PA2_CONGI Phospholipase A2 A2-actitoxin-Cgg2a ... Condylactis gigantea (Giant Caribbean anemone)

2 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group I subfamily

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PA2B1_NAJNG Basic phospholipase A2 CM-I (svPLA2) (EC ... Naja nigricollis (Black-necked spitting cobra)
PA2B2_NAJNG Basic phospholipase A2 CM-II (svPLA2) (EC ... Naja nigricollis (Black-necked spitting cobra)

15 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group I subfamily, D49 sub-subfamily

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PA2A1_BUNCE Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait)
PA2A1_NAJAT Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Naja atra (Chinese cobra)
PA2A2_OPHHA Acidic phospholipase A2 2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
PA2A4_NAJSG Acidic phospholipase A2 4 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Naja sagittifera (Andaman cobra)
PA2B2_NAJMO Basic phospholipase A2 CM-II (svPLA2) (EC ... Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra)
PA2B2_PSEFE Basic phospholipase A2 CbII (svPLA2) (EC ... Pseudocerastes fieldi (Field's horned viper) ...
PA2B3_BUNCE Basic phospholipase A2 3 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait)
PA2B3_NAJMO Basic phospholipase A2 CM-III (svPLA2) (EC ... Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra)
PA2B4_NAJNG Phospholipase A2 'basic' (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Naja nigricollis (Black-necked spitting cobra)
PA2B_BUNCE Basic phospholipase A2 KPA2 (svPLA2) (EC ... Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait)
PA2B_BUNFA Basic phospholipase A2 BFPA (svPLA2) (EC ... Bungarus fasciatus (Banded krait) (Pseudoboa ...
PA2B_HYDSC Basic phospholipase A2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Hydrophis schistosus (Beaked sea snake) ...
PA2B_NAJPA Basic phospholipase A2 nigexine (svPLA2) (EC ... Naja pallida (Red spitting cobra)
PA2_POROP Basic phospholipase A2 (PoPLA2) (PophPLA2) ... Porthidium ophryomegas (Slender hognose viper)
PA2_PSEPP Phospholipase A2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Pseudechis papuanus (Papuan black snake)

3 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily

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PA2A_DABSI Acidic phospholipase A2 Drs-PLA2 (svPLA2) (EC ... Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) ...
PA2B6_CRODM Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic chain (CB) ... Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
PA2N_DABRR Neutral phospholipase A2 RVV-PFIIc' (svPLA2) (EC ... Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera ...

42 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, D49 sub-subfamily

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PA23_BOTBZ Basic phospholipase A2 BbTX-III (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops brazili (Brazil's lancehead)
PA2A1_CERCE Acidic phospholipase A2 CC-PLA2-1 (svPLA2) (EC ... Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)
PA2A2_CERCE Acidic phospholipase A2 CC-PLA2-2 (svPLA2) (EC ... Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)
PA2A2_VIPRE Acidic phospholipase A2 Vur-PL2B (Vur-PL2) ... Vipera renardi (Steppe viper) (Vipera ursinii ...
PA2A6_CROHD Acidic phospholipase A2 CH-E6' (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake)
PA2AA_CROHD Acidic phospholipase CHA-E6a (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake)
PA2AA_TRIPE Acidic phospholipase A2 Tpu-E6a (svPLA2) (EC ... Trimeresurus puniceus (Flat-nosed pitviper)
PA2AB_CROHD Acidic phospholipase A2 CHA-E6b (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus horridus (Timber rattlesnake)
PA2AC_TRIPE Acidic phospholipase A2 Tpu-E6c (svPLA2) (EC ... Trimeresurus puniceus (Flat-nosed pitviper)
PA2A_BOTJR Acidic phospholipase A2 BthA-1 (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)
PA2A_BOTMO Acidic phospholipase A2 BmooPLA2 (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops moojeni (Lance-headed viper) (Caissaca)
PA2A_CERCE Acidic phospholipase A2 Cc1-PLA2 (svPLA2) (EC ... Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)
PA2A_GLOHA Acidic phospholipase A2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Gloydius halys (Chinese water mocassin) ...
PA2A_TRIBO Acidic phospholipase A2 Tbo-E6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Trimeresurus borneensis (Borneo pit viper)
PA2B1_BOTPA Basic phospholipase A2 BnpTX-1 (BnPTx-I) ... Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) ...
PA2B1_VIPBN Basic phospholipase A2 chain HDP-1P (svPLA2) (EC ... Vipera berus nikolskii (Nikolsky's adder) ...
PA2B2_BOTJR Basic phospholipase A2 homolog bothropstoxin-2 ... Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)
PA2B2_BOTPA Basic phospholipase A2 BnpTX-2 (BnPTx-II) ... Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) ...
PA2B2_VIPBN Basic phospholipase A2 chain HDP-2P (svPLA2) (EC ... Vipera berus nikolskii (Nikolsky's adder) ...
PA2B3_BOTPI Basic phospholipase A2 homolog piratoxin-3 ... Bothrops pirajai (Piraja's lancehead)
PA2B8_DABRR Basic phospholipase A2 VRV-PL-VIIIa (svPLA2) (EC ... Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera ...
PA2B9_CRODM Basic phospholipase A2 9 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
PA2BA_CRODM Basic phospholipase A2 10 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
PA2BA_CRODU Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic chain CBa2 (CB2) ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
PA2BA_VIPAA Basic phospholipase A2 ammodytoxin A (AtxA) ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
PA2BB_CRODU Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic subunit CBb (CTX ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
PA2BB_GLOHA Basic phospholipase A2 B (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Gloydius halys (Chinese water mocassin) ...
PA2BB_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 Ts-G6D49 (svPLA2) (EC ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2BB_VIPAA Basic phospholipase A2 ammodytoxin B (AtxB) ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
PA2BC_CRODU Phospholipase A2 crotoxin basic subunit CBc ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
PA2BC_VIPAA Basic phospholipase A2 ammodytoxin C (AtxC) ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
PA2BD_BOTLC Basic phospholipase A2 (blD-PLA2) (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops leucurus (Whitetail lancehead)
PA2BD_DABRR Basic phospholipase A2 daboxin P (svPLA2) (EC ... Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera ...
PA2BG_CRODU Basic phospholipase A2 F17 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
PA2B_BITCA Basic phospholipase A2 caudoxin (svPLA2) (EC ... Bitis caudalis (Horned adder) (Horned viper)
PA2B_CERCE Basic phospholipase A2 Cc2-PLA2 (svPLA2) (EC ... Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)
PA2B_DABRR Basic phospholipase A2 RVV-VD (svPLA2) (EC ... Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera ...
PA2B_TRIBO Basic phospholipase A2 Tbo-G6D49 (svPLA2) (EC ... Trimeresurus borneensis (Borneo pit viper)
PA2B_TRIPE Basic phospholipase A2 Tpu-G6D49 (svPLA2) (EC ... Trimeresurus puniceus (Flat-nosed pitviper)
PA2B_VIPBB Basic phospholipase A2 Pla2Vb (VbbPLA2) (svPLA2) ... Vipera berus berus (Common viper)
PA2B_VIPRE Basic phospholipase A2 vurtoxin (svPLA2) (EC ... Vipera renardi (Steppe viper) (Vipera ursinii ...
PA2H_VIPBN Acidic phospholipase A2 inhibitor chain HPD-1I ... Vipera berus nikolskii (Nikolsky's adder) ...

9 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, K49 sub-subfamily

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PA2B2_PROFL Basic phospholipase A2 BP-II (svPLA2) (EC ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
PA2B3_PROFL Basic phospholipase A2 BP-III (svPLA2) (EC ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
PA2H2_BOTAS Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 2 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
PA2H4_BOTAS Phospholipase A2 homolog 4 (svPLA2 homolog) ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
PA2HE_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49a (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HF_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49b (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HG_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49c (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HI_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-K49a (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HJ_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-K49b (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...

2 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, N49 sub-subfamily

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PA2HD_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-R6 (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HH_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-R6 (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...

1 entry

Scoloptoxin-11 family

TXB3A_SCODE U-scoloptoxin(11)-Ssd3a (U-SLPTX(11)-Ssd3a) ... Scolopendra dehaani (Thai centipede) ...

24 entries

Snaclec family

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SL9A_BOTJA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
SL9A_ECHCA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled viper)
SL9A_PROFL Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
SL9B1_TRIST Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
SL9B2_TRIST Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
SL9B3_TRIST Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
SL9B_BOTJA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
SL9B_ECHCA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled viper)
SL9B_PROFL Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
SLAA_BOTJA Snaclec bothrojaracin subunit alpha (BJC subunit ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
SLAA_DEIAC Snaclec anticoagulant protein subunit A ... Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...
SLAB_BOTJA Snaclec bothrojaracin subunit beta (BJC subunit ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
SLAB_DEIAC Snaclec anticoagulant protein subunit B ... Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...
SLA_BOTIN Snaclec bothroinsularin subunit alpha (BIN) Bothrops insularis (Golden lancehead) (Lachesis ...
SLA_GLOBR Snaclec salmorin subunit A Gloydius brevicaudus (Korean slamosa snake) ...
SLA_GLOHA Snaclec coagulation factor IX-binding protein ... Gloydius halys (Chinese water mocassin) ...
SLA_PROFL Snaclec coagulation factor IX-binding protein ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
SLA_TRIST Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
SLB_BOTIN Snaclec bothroinsularin subunit beta (BIN) Bothrops insularis (Golden lancehead) (Lachesis ...
SLB_GLOBR Snaclec salmorin subunit B Gloydius brevicaudus (Korean slamosa snake) ...
SLB_GLOHA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Gloydius halys (Chinese water mocassin) ...
SLUA_DEIAC Snaclec agkisacutacin subunit A (Agk-A) Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...
SLUB_DEIAC Snaclec agkisacutacin subunit B (Agk-B) Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...
SLXA_GLOHA Snaclec coagulation factor IX/factor X-binding ... Gloydius halys (Chinese water mocassin) ...

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Non-conventional subfamily, Orphan group II sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3NO21_NAJKA Neurotoxin Nk-3FTx (Fragment) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Orphan group I sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3SO1_HEMHA Ringhalexin Hemachatus haemachatus (Rinkhals) (Sepedon ...

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Orphan group XX sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3SOKA_HEMHA Exactin (Extrinsic tenase-mediated FX activation ... Hemachatus haemachatus (Rinkhals) (Sepedon ...

2 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Type IB cytotoxin sub-subfamily

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3SBA_HEMHA Hemextin A (Hemachatus extrinsic tenase ... Hemachatus haemachatus (Rinkhals) (Sepedon ...
3SBB_HEMHA Hemextin B (Hemachatus extrinsic tenase ... Hemachatus haemachatus (Rinkhals) (Sepedon ...

2 entries

Venom Kunitz-type family

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VKT_OXYSC Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor taicotoxin ... Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus (Australian ...
VKT_VESBI Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor bicolin Vespa bicolor (Black shield wasp)