Blood coagulation cascade activating toxin

The blood coagulation cascade (Fig.1) is a series of reactions, in which a zymogen (inactive enzyme precursor) of a serine protease and its glycoprotein co-factor are activated and then catalyze the next reaction in the cascade, ultimately resulting in cross-linked fibrin.

The coagulation factors are principally serine proteases, which act by cleaving downstream proteins. There are some exceptions. For example, FVIII and FV are non-enzymatic oxidases, and Factor XIII is a transglutaminase. The coagulation factors circulate as inactive zymogens. The coagulation cascade is classically divided into three pathways. The tissue factor and contact activation pathways both activate the final common pathway of factor X, thrombin and fibrin.

    Figure 1: Blood coagulation cascade (Image from
    Wikimedia / licensed under Creative Commons ).

Venom blood coagulation cascade activating toxins activate components of the blood coagulation cascade and cause an imbalance in hemostasis.

See also UniProt-keyword

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

115 entries grouped by family (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

3 entries

Multicopper oxidase family

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FA5V_OXYMI Venom prothrombin activator omicarin-C ... Oxyuranus microlepidotus (Inland taipan) ...
FA5V_OXYSU Venom prothrombin activator oscutarin-C ... Oxyuranus scutellatus (Coastal taipan)
FA5V_PSETE Venom prothrombin activator pseutarin-C ... Pseudonaja textilis (Eastern brown snake)

1 entry

Not in a family

VPA_BOTAT Venom prothrombin activator (vPA) (Fragment) Bothrops atrox (Barba amarilla) (Fer-de-lance)

1 entry

Peptidase S1 family, CLIP subfamily

"Peptidase S1 family" VenomZone page
VSP_BOMIG Venom serine protease Bi-VSP (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Bombus ignitus (Bumblebee)

78 entries

Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom subfamily

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FAXC_OXYMI Venom prothrombin activator omicarin-C catalytic ... Oxyuranus microlepidotus (Inland taipan) ...
FAXC_OXYSU Venom prothrombin activator oscutarin-C ... Oxyuranus scutellatus (Coastal taipan)
FAXC_PSETE Venom prothrombin activator pseutarin-C ... Pseudonaja textilis (Eastern brown snake)
FAXD1_DEMVE Venom prothrombin activator vestarin-D1 (vPA) ... Demansia vestigiata (Lesser black whip snake) ...
FAXD1_NOTSC Venom prothrombin activator notecarin-D1 (vPA) ... Notechis scutatus scutatus (Mainland tiger ...
FAXD2_DEMVE Venom prothrombin activator vestarin-D2 (vPA) ... Demansia vestigiata (Lesser black whip snake) ...
FAXD2_NOTSC Venom prothrombin activator notecarin-D2 (vPA) ... Notechis scutatus scutatus (Mainland tiger ...
FAXD_CRYNI Venom prothrombin activator nigrarin-D (vPA) (EC ... Cryptophis nigrescens (Eastern small-eyed snake) ...
FAXD_HOPST Venom prothrombin activator hopsarin-D (vPA) (EC ... Hoplocephalus stephensii (Stephens' banded ...
FAXD_NOTSN Venom prothrombin activator notanarin-D (vPA) ... Notechis scutatus niger (Peninsula tiger snake) ...
FAXD_PSEPO Venom prothrombin activator porpharin-D (vPA) ... Pseudechis porphyriacus (Red-bellied black ...
FAXD_TROCA Venom prothrombin activator trocarin-D (vPA) (EC ... Tropidechis carinatus (Australian rough-scaled ...
VSP13_CRODU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin B1.3 (SVTLE gyroxin ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
VSP14_CRODU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin B1.4 (SVTLE gyroxin ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
VSP17_CRODU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin B1.7 (SVTLE gyroxin ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
VSP1_BOTAN Thrombin-like enzyme TLBan (SVTLE TLBan) (EC ... Bothrocophias andianus (Andean lancehead) ...
VSP1_BOTJR Thrombin-like enzyme BjussuSP-1 (SVTLE ... Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)
VSP1_BOTMA Thrombin-like enzyme TLBm (SVTLE TLBm) (EC ... Bothrops marajoensis (Marajo lancehead)
VSP1_BOTPA Thrombin-like enzyme BpSP-1 (SVTLE BpSP-1) (EC ... Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) ...
VSP1_CRODM Thrombin-like enzyme Cdc SI (SVTLE) (EC ... Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
VSP1_CRODO Thrombin-like enzyme collinein-1 (SVTLE ... Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Brazilian ...
VSP1_DEIAC Thrombin-like enzyme acutobin (SVTLE) (EC ... Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...
VSP1_GLOBR Thrombin-like enzyme kangshuanmei (SVTLE) (EC ... Gloydius brevicaudus (Korean slamosa snake) ...
VSP1_GLOUS Thrombin-like enzyme calobin-1 (SVTLE) (EC ... Gloydius ussuriensis (Ussuri mamushi) (Gloydius ...
VSP1_OVOOK Thrombin-like enzyme okinaxobin-1 (SVTLE) (EC ... Ovophis okinavensis (Ryukyu Island pit viper) ...
VSP1_PROEL Thrombin-like enzyme elegaxobin-1 (SVTLE) (EC ... Protobothrops elegans (Elegant pitviper) ...
VSP1_PROFL Thrombin-like enzyme flavoxobin (SVTLE) (EC ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
VSP1_TRIAB Thrombin-like enzyme 1 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Trimeresurus albolabris (White-lipped pit viper) ...
VSP21_CRODU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin B2.1 (SVTLE gyroxin ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
VSP27_BOTPI Thrombin-like enzyme BpirSP27 (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops pirajai (Piraja's lancehead)
VSP2_AGKBI Thrombin-like enzyme bilineobin (SVTLE) (EC ... Agkistrodon bilineatus (Cantil) (Tropical ...
VSP2_AGKCO Thrombin-like enzyme contortrixobin (SVTLE) (EC ... Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (Southern ...
VSP2_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme KN-BJ 2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
VSP2_CRODM Thrombin-like enzyme Cdc SII (SVTLE) (EC ... Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
VSP2_DEIAC Thrombin-like enzyme acutobin-2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...
VSP2_GLOUS Thrombin-like enzyme calobin-2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Gloydius ussuriensis (Ussuri mamushi) (Gloydius ...
VSP2_LACMR Thrombin-like enzyme LmrSP-2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Lachesis muta rhombeata (Bushmaster)
VSP2_OVOOK Thrombin-like enzyme okinaxobin-2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Ovophis okinavensis (Ryukyu Island pit viper) ...
VSP2_PROEL Thrombin-like enzyme elegaxobin-2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Protobothrops elegans (Elegant pitviper) ...
VSP2_TRIAB Thrombin-like enzyme 2 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Trimeresurus albolabris (White-lipped pit viper) ...
VSP3_LACMR Thrombin-like enzyme LmrSP-3 (SVTLE) (EC ... Lachesis muta rhombeata (Bushmaster)
VSP41_BOTPI Thrombin-like enzyme BpirSP41 (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops pirajai (Piraja's lancehead)
VSP48_BOTJR Thrombin-like enzyme BJ-48 (SVTLE BJ-48) (EC ... Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)
VSPAA_CERCE Snake venom serine protease Afaacytin ... Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)
VSPAL_TRIAB Thrombin-like enzyme albolabrase (SVTLE ... Trimeresurus albolabris (White-lipped pit viper) ...
VSPA_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme bothrombin (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
VSPA_CERCE Thrombin-like enzyme cerastotin (SVTLE) (EC ... Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)
VSPA_DABSI Factor V activator RVV-V alpha (EC 3.4.21.95) ... Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) ...
VSPA_DEIAC Thrombin-like enzyme acutin (SVTLE acutin) (EC ... Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...
VSPBH_BOTAL Thrombin-like enzyme bhalternin (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops alternatus (Urutu) (Rhinocerophis ...
VSPC1_CROAT Thrombin-like enzyme catroxobin-1 (SVTLE) (EC ... Crotalus atrox (Western diamondback rattlesnake)
VSPCE_CERVI Thrombin-like enzyme cerastobin (SVTLE) (EC ... Cerastes vipera (Sahara sand viper)
VSPCR_CROAD Thrombin-like enzyme crotalase (SVTLE) (EC ... Crotalus adamanteus (Eastern diamondback ...
VSPC_TRIAB Thrombin-like enzyme chitribrisin (SVTLE ... Trimeresurus albolabris (White-lipped pit viper) ...
VSPDV_BOTJR Thrombin-like enzyme D-V (SVTLE D-V) (EC ... Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)
VSPE2_GLOUS Thrombin-like enzyme CPI-enzyme 2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Gloydius ussuriensis (Ussuri mamushi) (Gloydius ...
VSPF2_CALRH Thrombin-like enzyme ancrod-2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) ...
VSPF5_MACLB Factor V activator (FVA) (VLFVA) (EC 3.4.21.95) ... Macrovipera lebetina (Levantine viper) (Vipera ...
VSPF_BOTAT Thrombin-like enzyme batroxobin (BX) (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops atrox (Barba amarilla) (Fer-de-lance)
VSPF_CERCE Thrombin-like enzyme RP34 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.74) ... Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)
VSPF_LACMR Thrombin-like enzyme LMR-47 (SVTLE LM-47) (SVTLE ... Lachesis muta rhombeata (Bushmaster)
VSPF_LACMU Thrombin-like enzyme gyroxin analog (LM-TL) ... Lachesis muta muta (Bushmaster)
VSPGL_GLOSH Thrombin-like enzyme gloshedobin (SVTLE) (EC ... Gloydius shedaoensis (Shedao island pit viper) ...
VSPG_BITGA Thrombin-like enzyme gabonase (SVTLE) (EC ... Bitis gabonica (Gaboon adder) (Gaboon viper)
VSPG_DABSI Factor V activator RVV-V gamma (EC 3.4.21.95) ... Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) ...
VSPL_BOTAS Thrombin-like enzyme asperase (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
VSPL_BOTLC Thrombin-like enzyme leucurobin (Leuc) (SVTLE) ... Bothrops leucurus (Whitetail lancehead)
VSPP_CERCE Thrombin-like enzyme cerastocytin (SVTLE) (EC ... Cerastes cerastes (Horned desert viper)
VSPP_TRIPP Thrombin-like enzyme purpurase (SVTLE purpurase) ... Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (Mangrove pit ...
VSPST_TRIST Thrombin-like enzyme stejnobin (SVTLE) (EC ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
VSPSX_GLOSA Thrombin-like enzyme saxthrombin (SVTLE) (EC ... Gloydius saxatilis (Rock mamushi) (Gloydius ...
VSPT1_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 1 (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
VSPT2_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 2 (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
VSPT3_BOTJA Thrombin-like enzyme TL-BJ 3 (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
VSP_BOTBA Thrombin-like enzyme barnettobin (Bb-TLE) ... Bothrops barnetti (Barnett's lancehead) ...
VSP_CRODC Thrombin-like enzyme F202 (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Crotalus durissus cascavella (Northeastern ...
VSP_NAJNA Thrombin-like enzyme TLP (SVTLE) (EC 3.4.21.-) ... Naja naja (Indian cobra)
VSP_PROJR Thrombin-like enzyme jerdonobin (SVTLE) (EC ... Protobothrops jerdonii (Jerdon's pitviper) ...

2 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group I subfamily, D49 sub-subfamily

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PA2A1_PSETE Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Pseudonaja textilis (Eastern brown snake)
PA2A2_PSETE Acidic phospholipase A2 2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Pseudonaja textilis (Eastern brown snake)

12 entries

Snaclec family

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SL114_ECHCA Snaclec carinactivase-1 regulatory subunit 14 ... Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled viper)
SL117_ECHCA Snaclec carinactivase-1 regulatory subunit 17 ... Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled viper)
SL1C1_VIPAA Snaclec factor X-activator 1 light chain 1 ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
SL1C2_VIPAA Snaclec factor X-activator 1 light chain 2 ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
SL2C1_VIPAA Snaclec factor X-activator 2 light chain 1 ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
SL2C2_VIPAA Snaclec factor X-activator 2 light chain 2 ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
SLLC1_DABSI Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme ... Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) ...
SLLC1_MACLB Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme ... Macrovipera lebetina (Levantine viper) (Vipera ...
SLLC2_DABSI Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme ... Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) ...
SLLC2_MACLB Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme ... Macrovipera lebetina (Levantine viper) (Vipera ...
SLLC2_VIPAP Snaclec coagulation factor X-activating enzyme ... Vipera aspis aspis (Aspic viper)
SLR_ECHML Snaclec multactivase regulatory subunit ... Echis multisquamatus (Central Asian sand viper)

1 entry

Venom Kunitz-type family

"Venom Kunitz-type family" VenomZone page
VKTK1_DABRR Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor DrKIn-I ... Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera ...

2 entries

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-I subfamily

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VM1BJ_BOTJA Snake venom metalloproteinase bothrojaractivase ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
VM1PA_DEIAC Snake venom metalloproteinase AaPA (SVMP) (EC ... Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...

1 entry

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-II subfamily, P-IIa sub-subfamily

"Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family" VenomZone page
VM2IA_BOTIN Zinc metalloproteinase/disintegrin [Cleaved ... Bothrops insularis (Golden lancehead) (Lachesis ...

7 entries

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-III subfamily, P-IIIa sub-subfamily

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VM3AD_AGKCL Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like ACLD (EC ... Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (Broad-banded ...
VM3BA_BOTAS Snake venom metalloproteinase basparin-A (SVMP) ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
VM3BE_BOTER Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like ... Bothrops erythromelas (Caatinga lance head)
VM3E2_ECHOC Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like EoVMP2 ... Echis ocellatus (Ocellated saw-scaled viper)
VM3E6_ECHOC Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like EoMP06 ... Echis ocellatus (Ocellated saw-scaled viper)
VM3E_ECHCA Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like ecarin ... Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled viper)
VM3_MICIK Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like mikarin ... Micropechis ikaheca (New Guinean small-eyed ...

1 entry

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-III subfamily, P-IIIc sub-subfamily

"Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family" VenomZone page
VM3H1_PROFL Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like HV1 (EC ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...

6 entries

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-III subfamily, P-IIId sub-subfamily

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VM3C1_ECHCA Zinc metalloproteinase carinactivase-1 catalytic ... Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled viper)
VM3CX_DABRR Coagulation factor X-activating enzyme heavy ... Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera ...
VM3CX_DABSI Coagulation factor X-activating enzyme heavy ... Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) ...
VM3CX_MACLB Coagulation factor X-activating enzyme heavy ... Macrovipera lebetina (Levantine viper) (Vipera ...
VM3FA_VIPAA Factor X-activator 1 heavy chain (VAFXA-I HC) ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
VM3M_ECHML Zinc metalloproteinase multactivase catalytic ... Echis multisquamatus (Central Asian sand viper)