Myotoxin

Myotoxins are proteins that cause muscle necrosis. Principally found in snake venoms, their myotoxic activity can be monitored by morphological analysis and by the increase of plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity which results from sarcolemmal damage due to myotoxic components of the venom.

Venom-induced myotoxicity occurs in two clinical patterns: local myotoxicity, characteristic of viperid snakebites, which affects predominantly the muscles located in the vicinity of the region where venom is injected, and systemic myotoxicity. The causes widespread muscle damage associated with generalized myalgia, and large increments in the plasma activity of muscle-derived enzymes, such as creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobinuria.

3D-structure view (PDB 1H5O ) of the myotoxin crotamine.
Systemic myotoxicity is characteristic of envenomation by sea snakes, various terrestrial elapids and some viperid species, such as the South American subspecies of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus.

See also UniProtKB-keyword

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

144 entries grouped by family (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

17 entries

Crotamine-myotoxin family

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MYC1_CRODU Crotamine CRO1 Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
MYC2_CRODU Crotamine (Crt) (Myotoxin) Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
MYC3_CRODU Crotamine CRO3 Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
MYX1_CRODU Myotoxin-1 (Crotamine-1) Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
MYX1_CROOO Myotoxin-1 (Myotoxin I) Crotalus oreganus concolor (Midget faded ...
MYX1_CROVV Myotoxin-A (Myotoxin-1) Crotalus viridis viridis (Prairie rattlesnake)
MYX2_CRODU Myotoxin-2 (Crotamine-2) (Fragment) Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
MYX2_CROOO Myotoxin-2 (Myotoxin II) Crotalus oreganus concolor (Midget faded ...
MYX2_CROVV Myotoxin-2 [Cleaved into: Myotoxin-4] Crotalus viridis viridis (Prairie rattlesnake)
MYX3_CRODU Myotoxin-3 (Crotamine-3) Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
MYX3_CROVV Myotoxin-3 Crotalus viridis viridis (Prairie rattlesnake)
MYX4_CRODU Myotoxin-4 (Crotamine-4) (Fragment) Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...
MYXC2_CRODM Crotamine-IV-2 Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
MYXC3_CRODM Crotamine-IV-3 Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
MYXC_CROOH Myotoxin (Crotamine-4) (Toxic peptide C) Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern pacific ...
MYX_CROAD Myotoxin (CAM-toxin) Crotalus adamanteus (Eastern diamondback ...
MYX_CRODR Crotamine Ile-19 (CRO_Ile-19) Crotalus durissus ruruima (South American ...

1 entry

Flavin monoamine oxidase family, FIG1 subfamily

"Flavin monoamine oxidase family" VenomZone page
OXLA_LACMT L-amino acid oxidase Lm29 (LmLAAO) (LAO) (EC ... Lachesis muta (South American bushmaster)

1 entry

Peptidase S1 family, Snake venom subfamily

"Peptidase S1 family" VenomZone page
VSPBH_BOTAL Thrombin-like enzyme bhalternin (SVTLE) (EC ... Bothrops alternatus (Urutu) (Rhinocerophis ...

1 entry

Phospholipase A2 family

"Phospholipase A2 family" VenomZone page
PA2_CONGI Phospholipase A2 A2-actitoxin-Cgg2a ... Condylactis gigantea (Giant Caribbean anemone)

3 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group I subfamily

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PA21_ACASE Phospholipase A2 acanmyotoxin-1 (svPLA2) (EC ... Acanthophis rugosus (Irian Jayan death adder)
PA22_ACASS Phospholipase A2 acanmyotoxin-2 (svPLA2) (EC ... Acanthophis sp. (strain Seram) (Seram death ...
PA23_ACASS Phospholipase A2 acanmyotoxin-3 (svPLA2) (EC ... Acanthophis sp. (strain Seram) (Seram death ...

11 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group I subfamily, D49 sub-subfamily

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PA22_OXYSC Phospholipase A2 OS2 (PLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus (Australian ...
PA2A1_NAJMO Acidic phospholipase A2 CM-I (svPLA2) (EC ... Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra)
PA2A1_OPHHA Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
PA2AE_NOTSC Acidic phospholipase A2 HTe (svPLA2) (EC ... Notechis scutatus scutatus (Mainland tiger ...
PA2B2_NAJMO Basic phospholipase A2 CM-II (svPLA2) (EC ... Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra)
PA2B3_NAJMO Basic phospholipase A2 CM-III (svPLA2) (EC ... Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra)
PA2BA_MICNI Basic phospholipase A2 nigroxin A (svPLA2) (EC ... Micrurus nigrocinctus (Central American coral ...
PA2BB_MICNI Basic phospholipase A2 nigroxin B (svPLA2) (EC ... Micrurus nigrocinctus (Central American coral ...
PA2B_HYDSC Basic phospholipase A2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Hydrophis schistosus (Beaked sea snake) ...
PA2B_NOTSC Basic phospholipase A2 notexin (svPLA2) (EC ... Notechis scutatus scutatus (Mainland tiger ...
PA2_POROP Basic phospholipase A2 (PoPLA2) (PophPLA2) ... Porthidium ophryomegas (Slender hognose viper)

7 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily

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PA2B3_CROLL Basic phospholipase A2 Cll-N6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus lepidus lepidus (Mottled rock ...
PA2B3_SISMB Basic phospholipase A2 Smb-N6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Sistrurus miliarius barbouri (Dusky pigmy ...
PA2BI_GLOSA Basic phospholipase A2 intermexin (svPLA2) (EC ... Gloydius saxatilis (Rock mamushi) (Gloydius ...
PA2B_BOTJR Basic phospholipase A2 BjIV (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)
PA2B_PROTO Basic phospholipase A2 Pto-N6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Protobothrops tokarensis (Tokara habu) ...
PA2HK_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-K49c (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2H_BOTMA Phospholipase A2 homolog (BmarPLA2) (svPLA2 ... Bothrops marajoensis (Marajo lancehead)

34 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, D49 sub-subfamily

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PA22_LACMU Phospholipase A2 2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Lachesis muta muta (Bushmaster)
PA23_BOTBZ Basic phospholipase A2 BbTX-III (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops brazili (Brazil's lancehead)
PA2A1_LACMU Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Lachesis muta muta (Bushmaster)
PA2A1_PROFL Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
PA2AA_DABSI Acidic phospholipase A2 daboiatoxin A chain ... Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) ...
PA2AB_DABSI Acidic phospholipase A2 daboiatoxin B chain ... Daboia siamensis (Eastern Russel's viper) ...
PA2AD_CROOA Acidic phospholipase A2 CoaPLA2 (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus oreganus abyssus (Grand Canyon ...
PA2A_BOTIN Acidic phospholipase A2 BITP01A (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops insularis (Golden lancehead) (Lachesis ...
PA2A_BOTLC Acidic phospholipase A2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Bothrops leucurus (Whitetail lancehead)
PA2B1_BOTMA Basic phospholipase A2 BmjeTX-I (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops marajoensis (Marajo lancehead)
PA2B1_BOTMO Basic phospholipase A2 BmTX-I (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops moojeni (Lance-headed viper) (Caissaca)
PA2B1_BOTPA Basic phospholipase A2 BnpTX-1 (BnPTx-I) ... Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) ...
PA2B1_LACMU Basic phospholipase A2 LmTX-I (svPLA2) (EC ... Lachesis muta muta (Bushmaster)
PA2B2_BOTJR Basic phospholipase A2 homolog bothropstoxin-2 ... Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)
PA2B2_BOTMA Basic phospholipase A2 BmjeTX-II (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops marajoensis (Marajo lancehead)
PA2B2_BOTPA Basic phospholipase A2 BnpTX-2 (BnPTx-II) ... Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) ...
PA2B2_LACMU Basic phospholipase A2 LmTX-II (svPLA2) (EC ... Lachesis muta muta (Bushmaster)
PA2B2_SISTE Basic phospholipase A2 Sct-N6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Sistrurus tergeminus (Western massasauga) ...
PA2B2_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2B3_BOTAS Basic phospholipase A2 myotoxin I (MT-I) ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
PA2B3_BOTPI Basic phospholipase A2 homolog piratoxin-3 ... Bothrops pirajai (Piraja's lancehead)
PA2B8_DABRR Basic phospholipase A2 VRV-PL-VIIIa (svPLA2) (EC ... Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera ...
PA2B9_CRODM Basic phospholipase A2 9 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
PA2BA_CRODM Basic phospholipase A2 10 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Crotalus durissus cumanensis (South American ...
PA2BC_CRODR Basic phospholipase A2 Cdr-12 (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus durissus ruruima (South American ...
PA2BC_CROOL Basic phospholipase A2 ColTx-1 (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus oreganus lutosus (Great basin ...
PA2BD_CALRH Inactive basic phospholipase A2 W6D49 ... Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) ...
PA2BD_CRODR Basic phospholipase A2 Cdr-13 (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus durissus ruruima (South American ...
PA2BN_CROVV Basic phospholipase A2 Cvv-N6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Crotalus viridis viridis (Prairie rattlesnake)
PA2BN_PROFL Basic phospholipase A2 PLA-N (svPLA2) (EC ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
PA2BT_PROMU Basic phospholipase A2 trimucrotoxin (svPLA2) ... Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Taiwan habu) ...
PA2B_BOTSC Basic phospholipase A2 Bs-N6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothriechis schlegelii (Eyelash palm pitviper)
PA2B_CERGO Basic phospholipase A2 Ceg-N6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Cerrophidion godmani (Porthidium godmani) ...
PA2B_SISMS Basic phospholipase A2 Sms-N6 (svPLA2) (EC ... Sistrurus miliarius streckeri (Western pigmy ...

44 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, K49 sub-subfamily

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BBTX2_BOTBZ Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 2 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops brazili (Brazil's lancehead)
MTX2_BOTBZ Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 2 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops brazili (Brazil's lancehead)
PA23_BOTMT Basic phospholipase A2 BmatTX-III (svPLA2) (EC ... Bothrops matogrossensis (Pitviper) (Bothrops ...
PA2B1_BOTJR Basic phospholipase A2 homolog bothropstoxin-1 ... Bothrops jararacussu (Jararacussu)
PA2B1_PROFL Basic phospholipase A2 BP-I (svPLA2) (EC ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
PA2B2_PROFL Basic phospholipase A2 BP-II (svPLA2) (EC ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
PA2B3_PROFL Basic phospholipase A2 BP-III (svPLA2) (EC ... Protobothrops flavoviridis (Habu) (Trimeresurus ...
PA2H1_AGKCL Basic phospholipase A2 homolog MT1 (svPLA2 ... Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (Broad-banded ...
PA2H1_BOTAT Phospholipase A2 homolog 1 (svPLA2 homolog) ... Bothrops atrox (Barba amarilla) (Fer-de-lance)
PA2H1_BOTMO Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 1 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops moojeni (Lance-headed viper) (Caissaca)
PA2H1_BOTMT Basic phospholipase A2 homolog BmatTX-I (svPLA2 ... Bothrops matogrossensis (Pitviper) (Bothrops ...
PA2H1_BOTPI Basic phospholipase A2 homolog piratoxin-1 ... Bothrops pirajai (Piraja's lancehead)
PA2H2_BOTAS Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 2 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
PA2H2_BOTMO Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 2 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops moojeni (Lance-headed viper) (Caissaca)
PA2H2_BOTMT Basic phospholipase A2 homolog BmatTX-II (svPLA2 ... Bothrops matogrossensis (Pitviper) (Bothrops ...
PA2H2_BOTPI Basic phospholipase A2 homolog piratoxin-2 ... Bothrops pirajai (Piraja's lancehead)
PA2H2_CERGO Basic phospholipase A2 homolog GodMT-II (svPLA2 ... Cerrophidion godmani (Porthidium godmani) ...
PA2H3_BOTAS Basic phospholipase A2 homolog M1-3-3 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
PA2H4_BOTAS Phospholipase A2 homolog 4 (svPLA2 homolog) ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
PA2H5_TRIGA Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 5 (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus gramineus (Bamboo pit viper) ...
PA2HA_BOTAS Basic phospholipase A2 homolog 4a (svPLA2 ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
PA2HA_TRIPE Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Tpu-K49a (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus puniceus (Flat-nosed pitviper)
PA2HB_AGKPC Basic phospholipase A2 homolog APC-K49 (svPLA2 ... Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti (Florida ...
PA2HB_AGKPI Basic phospholipase A2 homolog AppP2 (svPLA2 ... Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus (Eastern ...
PA2HB_AGKPL Basic phospholipase A2 homolog APL-K49 (svPLA2 ... Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma (Western ...
PA2HB_ATRNM Basic phospholipase A2 homolog (svPLA2 homolog) ... Atropoides nummifer (Jumping pit viper) ...
PA2HB_BOTAL Basic phospholipase A2 homolog BaTX (svPLA2 ... Bothrops alternatus (Urutu) (Rhinocerophis ...
PA2HB_BOTLC Basic phospholipase A2 homolog blK-PLA2 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops leucurus (Whitetail lancehead)
PA2HB_CALRH Basic phospholipase A2 homolog G6K49 (svPLA2 ... Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper) ...
PA2HB_CERGO Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Pgo-K49 (svPLA2 ... Cerrophidion godmani (Porthidium godmani) ...
PA2HB_TRIBO Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Tbo-K49 (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus borneensis (Borneo pit viper)
PA2HB_TRIPE Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Tpu-K49b (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus puniceus (Flat-nosed pitviper)
PA2HE_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49a (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HF_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49b (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HG_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-K49c (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HI_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-K49a (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HJ_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-K49b (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HP_BOTMO Basic phospholipase A2 homolog BomoTx (svPLA2 ... Bothrops moojeni (Lance-headed viper) (Caissaca)
PA2H_BOTPA Basic phospholipase A2 homolog BnSP-7 (svPLA2 ... Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) ...
PA2H_BOTSC Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Bsc-K49 (svPLA2 ... Bothriechis schlegelii (Eyelash palm pitviper)
PA2H_CROAT Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Cax-K49 (svPLA2 ... Crotalus atrox (Western diamondback rattlesnake)
PA2H_DEIAC Basic phospholipase A2 homolog acutohaemolysin ... Deinagkistrodon acutus (Hundred-pace snake) ...
PA2H_OVOOK Phospholipase A2 homolog PLA2-03 (svPLA2 ... Ovophis okinavensis (Ryukyu Island pit viper) ...
PA2H_PROMU Basic phospholipase A2 homolog (svPLA2 homolog) ... Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Taiwan habu) ...

3 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, N49 sub-subfamily

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PA2HB_PROMU Basic phospholipase A2 homolog TM-N49 (svPLA2 ... Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Taiwan habu) ...
PA2HD_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Ts-R6 (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...
PA2HH_TRIST Basic phospholipase A2 homolog CTs-R6 (svPLA2 ... Trimeresurus stejnegeri (Chinese green tree ...

1 entry

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, Q49 sub-subfamily

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PA2H_GLOUS Basic phospholipase A2 homolog Gln49-PLA2 ... Gloydius ussuriensis (Ussuri mamushi) (Gloydius ...

3 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, R49 sub-subfamily

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PA2B1_PROEL Basic phospholipase A2 PeBP(R)-I/II (svPLA2) (EC ... Protobothrops elegans (Elegant pitviper) ...
PA2HP_PROMU Basic phospholipase A2 homolog promutoxin ... Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (Taiwan habu) ...
PA2H_PROMB Basic phospholipase A2 homolog zhaoermiatoxin ... Protobothrops mangshanensis (Mangshan pitviper) ...

5 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, S49 sub-subfamily

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PA2HL_VIPAA Basic phospholipase A2 homolog ammodytin L ... Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Western sand viper)
PA2HS_ECHCO Phospholipase A2 homolog ECO_00035 (svPLA2 ... Echis coloratus (Carpet viper)
PA2HS_ECHCS Phospholipase A2 homolog ECS_00014 (svPLA2 ... Echis carinatus sochureki (Saw-scaled viper)
PA2HS_ECHOC Phospholipase A2 homolog (svPLA2 homolog) ... Echis ocellatus (Ocellated saw-scaled viper)
PA2HS_ECHPL Phospholipase A2 homolog EPL_00195 (svPLA2 ... Echis pyramidum leakeyi (Leakey's carpet viper) ...

1 entry

Sea anemone sodium channel inhibitory toxin family

NAU1A_AIPDI Delta-aiptatoxin-Adi1a (Delta-ATTX-Adi1a) (Ion ... Aiptasia diaphana (Glasrose) (Sea anemone)

2 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Type IA cytotoxin sub-subfamily

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3SA1_DABRR Cytotoxin drCT-1 (drCT-I) (Fragment) Daboia russelii (Russel's viper) (Vipera ...
3SA1_NAJAT Cytotoxin 1 (CX1) (Cardiotoxin 1) (CTX-1) (CTX1) ... Naja atra (Chinese cobra)

2 entries

SNTX/VTX toxin family

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STXA_SYNHO Stonustoxin subunit alpha (SNTX subunit alpha) ... Synanceia horrida (Estuarine stonefish) ...
STXB_SYNHO Stonustoxin subunit beta (SNTX subunit beta) ... Synanceia horrida (Estuarine stonefish) ...

1 entry

True venom lectin family

"True venom lectin family" VenomZone page
TMC47_THAMA Myotoxin TmC4-47.2 (Fragment) Thalassophryne maculosa (Cano toadfish)

4 entries

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-I subfamily

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VM1AH_AGKCL Snake venom metalloproteinase ACLH (SVMP) (EC ... Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (Broad-banded ...
VM1B1_BOTAS Snake venom metalloproteinase BaP1 (SVMP) (EC ... Bothrops asper (Terciopelo)
VM1B1_BOTAT Snake venom metalloproteinase Batx-1 (SVMP) (EC ... Bothrops atrox (Barba amarilla) (Fer-de-lance)
VM1N_BOTPA Snake venom metalloproteinase neuwiedase (SVMP) ... Bothrops pauloensis (Neuwied's lancehead) ...

1 entry

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-II subfamily, P-IIc sub-subfamily

"Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family" VenomZone page
VM2B1_AGKBI Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin bilitoxin-1 ... Agkistrodon bilineatus (Cantil) (Tropical ...

1 entry

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-III subfamily, P-IIIa sub-subfamily

"Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family" VenomZone page
VM3AL_BORPO Zinc metalloproteinase alsophinase (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Borikenophis portoricensis (Puerto Rican racer) ...

1 entry

Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family, P-III subfamily, P-IIIb sub-subfamily

"Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) family" VenomZone page
VM3_BOTMO Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like moojenin ... Bothrops moojeni (Lance-headed viper) (Caissaca)