G-protein coupled receptor impairing toxin (GPCR regulator)

Receptor G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins constituted of seven transmembrane segments linked by three external and three internal loops. GPCRs constitute the largest family of membrane proteins. They transduce external stimuli into the cell and control almost all physiological processes in humans (Jacoby et al., 2006 ).
Toxin G-protein coupled receptor impairing toxins can be divided into two families. The first family mimics the natural agonists of the targeted receptor: vasopressin/oxytocin (see cone snail conopressins ), endothelin (see snake sarafotoxins ) and neurotensin (see cone snail contulakins ). The second family consists of highly reticulated toxins with folds that are unrelated to any natural ligands and regroups all other GPCR impairing toxins.

Receptor families Receptor Venom proteins that target receptors.
Click on to retrieve receptors and toxins of interest.
Human Snake Scorpion Cone
snail
Spider Cnidarian Insect Other All
Adrenergic
receptor
- - -
Bradykinin
receptor
- - -
Cholecystokinin
receptor
- - - - - -
Endothelin
receptor
- - - - - -
Dopamine
receptor
- - - - - -
Glucagon-like peptide receptor - - - - - -
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - - - - - -
Neurotensin
receptor
- - - - - -
Opioid
receptor
- - - - -
Somatostatin
receptor
- - - - - -
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - - - - - -
Vasopressin/oxytocin receptor - - - - - -
GPCR All -

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

112 entries grouped by family (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

3 entries

AVIT (prokineticin) family

Select_allDeselect_all "AVIT (prokineticin) family" VenomZone page
MIT1_DENPO Toxin MIT1 (MIT 1) (Black mamba intestinal toxin ... Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black mamba)
VAR1_VARVA AVIToxin-VAR1 Varanus varius (Lace monitor)
VAR2_VARVA AVIToxin-VAR2 Varanus varius (Lace monitor)

3 entries

Bradykinin inhibitor peptide family

Select_allDeselect_all
BKIP_AGKBI Bradykinin inhibitor peptide (BIP) Agkistrodon bilineatus (Cantil) (Tropical ...
BKIP_CROAT Bradykinin inhibitor peptide (BIP) Crotalus atrox (Western diamondback rattlesnake)
BKIP_CROVV Bradykinin inhibitor peptide (BIP) Crotalus viridis viridis (Prairie rattlesnake)

1 entry

Bradykinin-potentiating peptide family

"Bradykinin-potentiating peptide family" VenomZone page
BPP7A_BOTJA Bradykinin-potentiating peptide 7a (BPP-7a) ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)

1 entry

Bradykinin-potentiating peptide family; Natriuretic peptide family

"Bradykinin-potentiating peptide family" VenomZone page
BNP_BOTIN Bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic ... Bothrops insularis (Golden lancehead) (Lachesis ...

2 entries

Bradykinin-potentiating peptide family; PHpG family; Natriuretic peptide family

Select_allDeselect_all "Bradykinin-potentiating peptide family" VenomZone page
BNP1_BOTJA Bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)
BNP2_BOTJA Bradykinin-potentiating and C-type natriuretic ... Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca) (Bothrops jajaraca)

11 entries

Bradykinin-related peptide family

Select_allDeselect_all
BRK1_PROEX Protopolybiakinin-1 (Protopolybiakinin-I) Protopolybia exigua (Neotropical social wasp)
BRK6_CYPDO Cd-146 peptide Cyphononyx dorsalis (Spider wasp) (Cyphononyx ...
BRKC_CYPDO Cyphokinin [Cleaved into: [Thr6]-bradykinin] Cyphononyx dorsalis (Spider wasp) (Cyphononyx ...
BRKF_CYPDO Fulvonin Cyphononyx dorsalis (Spider wasp) (Cyphononyx ...
BRK_MEGFL Megascoliakinin ([Thr6]-bradykinin-Lys-Ala) ... Megascolia flavifrons (Garden dagger wasp) ...
BRK_PARID Waspkinin Parapolybia indica (Lesser paper wasp)
BRK_POLMJ Wasp kinin PMM1 Polistes major (Neotropical social wasp)
BRK_VESMA Vespakinin-M Vespa mandarinia (Asian giant hornet)
BRK_VESMC Vespulakinin-1 [Cleaved into: Vespulakinin-2] Vespula maculifrons (Eastern yellow jacket) ...
BRK_VESXA Vespakinin-X Vespa xanthoptera (Japanese yellow hornet) ...
KLPS_LYCER Kinin-like peptide-S (Fragment) Lycosa erythrognatha (Wolf spider) (Scaptocosa ...

1 entry

Cationic peptide 01 (latrotoxin) family, 03 (alpha-latrotoxin) subfamily

LATA_LATTR Alpha-latrotoxin-Lt1a (Alpha-LTX-Lt1a) ... Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Mediterranean ...

2 entries

Conotoxin A superfamily

Select_allDeselect_all
CA1A_CONRE Alpha-conotoxin RgIA (Fragment) Conus regius (Crown cone)
CA1A_CONTU Rho-conotoxin TIA (Rho-TIA) Conus tulipa (Fish-hunting cone snail) (Tulip ...

3 entries

Conotoxin C superfamily

Select_allDeselect_all
CON1_CONLT Contulakin-Lt1 Conus litteratus (Lettered cone)
CON2_CONLT Contulakin-Lt2 Conus litteratus (Lettered cone)
CONG_CONGE Contulakin-G (CGX-1160) Conus geographus (Geography cone) (Nubecula ...

2 entries

Conotoxin T superfamily

Select_allDeselect_all
CT32_CONLI Conotoxin LiC32 Conus lividus (Livid cone)
CT5A_CONCN Tau-conotoxin CnVA (Tau-CnVA) Conus consors (Singed cone)

6 entries

Endothelin/sarafotoxin family

Select_allDeselect_all "Endothelin/sarafotoxin family" VenomZone page
SRTX1_ATRIR Sarafotoxin-i1 (SRTX-i1) (Sarafotoxin-i3) ... Atractaspis irregularis (Variable burrowing asp) ...
SRTX2_ATRIR Sarafotoxin-i2 (SRTX-i2) Atractaspis irregularis (Variable burrowing asp) ...
SRTXB_ATRBI Bibrotoxin (BTX) Atractaspis bibronii (Bibron's mole viper) ...
SRTXD_ATREN Sarafotoxin-D (SRTX-D) (S6D) Atractaspis engaddensis (Israeli burrowing asp) ...
SRTXL_ATRMM Long-sarafotoxin (L-SRTX) [Cleaved into: ... Atractaspis microlepidota microlepidota
SRTX_ATREN Sarafotoxin [Cleaved into: Sarafotoxin-A, ... Atractaspis engaddensis (Israeli burrowing asp) ...

3 entries

FARP (FMRFamide related peptide) family

Select_allDeselect_all
CRFA1_CONSP Conorfamide-Sr1 (CNF-Sr1) (Cono-RFamide-Sr1) Conus spurius (Alphabet cone)
CRFA2_CONTE Conorfamide-Tx2 (CNF-Tx2) (Cono-RFamide-Tx2) Conus textile (Cloth-of-gold cone)
CRFA_CONVC Conorfamide-Vc1 (CNF-Vc1) (Cono-RFamide-Vc1) Conus victoriae (Queen Victoria cone)

1 entry

Gastrin/cholecystokinin family

CCT1_VARVA Cholecystoxin (Cholecystoxin-Vvar1) [Cleaved ... Varanus varius (Lace monitor)

7 entries

Glucagon family

Select_allDeselect_all
EXE1_HELHO Exendin-1 (Helospectin-1) (VIP-like 1) [Cleaved ... Heloderma horridum horridum (Mexican beaded ...
EXE1_HELSU Exendin-1 (Helospectin I) (Helospectin-1) ... Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster)
EXE2_HELSC Exendin-2-long [Cleaved into: Exendin-2 ... Heloderma suspectum cinctum (Banded Gila ...
EXE2_HELSU Exendin-2-long [Cleaved into: Exendin-2 ... Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster)
EXE3_HELHO Exendin-3 (Glucagon-like 3) Heloderma horridum horridum (Mexican beaded ...
EXE4_HELSC Exendin-4 Heloderma suspectum cinctum (Banded Gila ...
EXE4_HELSU Exendin-4 (Exenatide) Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster)

12 entries

Long (3 C-C) scorpion toxin superfamily

Select_allDeselect_all
LV1A1_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain ... Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion)
LV1A2_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain ... Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion)
LV1A_BUTOC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain ... Buthus occitanus tunetanus (Common European ...
LV1A_BUTOS Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain ... Buthus occitanus israelis (Common yellow ...
LV1A_MESMA Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain ... Mesobuthus martensii (Manchurian scorpion) ...
LV1B1_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-beta chain ... Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion)
LV1B2_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-beta chain ... Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion)
LV1B_BUTOC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-beta chain ... Buthus occitanus tunetanus (Common European ...
LV1B_BUTOS Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-beta chain ... Buthus occitanus israelis (Common yellow ...
LV1B_MESMA HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor bumarsin (JCH2) ... Mesobuthus martensii (Manchurian scorpion) ...
LVPAH_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain ... Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion)
LVPAY_LYCMC Lipolysis-activating peptide 1-alpha chain ... Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion)

1 entry

Natriuretic peptide family

"Natriuretic peptide family" VenomZone page
VNHP_HELSC Natriuretic and helokinestatin peptides [Cleaved ... Heloderma suspectum cinctum (Banded Gila ...

2 entries

Non-disulfide-bridged peptide (NDBP) superfamily

Select_allDeselect_all
NDBH1_TITSE Hypotensin-1 (Hypotensin I) (TsHpt-I) (Toxin ... Tityus serrulatus (Brazilian scorpion)
NDBH2_TITSE Hypotensin-2 (Hypotensin II) (TsHpt-II) (Toxin ... Tityus serrulatus (Brazilian scorpion)

3 entries

Not in a family

Select_allDeselect_all
HKS_HELHO Helokinestatin-1 (Helokinestatin) Heloderma horridum horridum (Mexican beaded ...
HKS_HELSS Helokinestatin-1 Heloderma suspectum suspectum (Reticulate Gila ...
YA_MESMA BmK-YA precursor [Cleaved into: BmK-YA 1 ... Mesobuthus martensii (Manchurian scorpion) ...

1 entry

Opioid neuropeptide precursor family

PENKV_MEIAT Proenkephalin-A (Proenkephalin) [Cleaved into: ... Meiacanthus atrodorsalis (Forktail blenny) ...

2 entries

Phospholipase A2 family, Group I subfamily, D49 sub-subfamily

Select_allDeselect_all "Phospholipase A2 family" VenomZone page
PA2A1_NAJAT Acidic phospholipase A2 1 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Naja atra (Chinese cobra)
PA2NA_NAJSP Neutral phospholipase A2 muscarinic inhibitor ... Naja sputatrix (Malayan spitting cobra) (Naja ...

1 entry

Phospholipase A2 family, Group II subfamily, D49 sub-subfamily

"Phospholipase A2 family" VenomZone page
PA1A_CRODU Phospholipase A2 homolog crotoxin acid subunit ... Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American ...

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3X_MICLE Muscarinic toxin Mlalpha (MT-Mlalpha) (Fragment) Micrurus lemniscatus (South American coral ...

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Non-conventional subfamily, Orphan group II sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3NO2_NAJKA Tryptophan-containing weak neurotoxin (WTX) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

3 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Non-conventional subfamily, Orphan group V sub-subfamily

Select_allDeselect_all "Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3NO52_BUNMU Long neurotoxin homolog NTL2 Bungarus multicinctus (Many-banded krait)
3NO56_BUNMU Long neurotoxin homolog TA-bm16 (Delta-protein) Bungarus multicinctus (Many-banded krait)
3NO5I_BUNMU Gamma-bungarotoxin (Long neurotoxin homolog ... Bungarus multicinctus (Many-banded krait)

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Non-conventional subfamily, Orphan group XVII sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3NOHE_BUNMU Muscarinic toxin BM14 Bungarus multicinctus (Many-banded krait)

22 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Aminergic toxin sub-subfamily

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3SDC1_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX21 Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SDC3_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX23 Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SDC4_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX14 Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SDC5_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX15 (OH-84) Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SDC7_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX27 (OH-27) Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SDC9_OPHHA Beta-cardiotoxin CTX9 Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SI12_DENAN Muscarinic m1-toxin2 Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SI13_DENAN Muscarinic m1-toxin3 (Fragment) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SI14_DENAN Muscarinic m1-toxin4 (Fragment) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SI1A_DENAN Toxin AdTx1 (Rho-elapitoxin-Da1a) (Rho-Da1a) ... Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SI1B_DENAN Rho-elapitoxin-Da1b (Rho-Da1b) (Rho-EPTX-Da1b) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SI35_OPHHA Short neurotoxin OH-35 Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SI3_DENPO Adrenergic toxin rho-elapitoxin-Dp1b ... Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black mamba)
3SIM1_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 1 (MT1) (MTx1) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SIM2_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 2 (MT2) (MTx2) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SIM3_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SIM4_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 4 (MT4) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SIM6_OPHHA Muscarinic toxin MTX6 Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SIM7_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 7 (MT-7) (MT7) (Muscarinic ... Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...
3SIM8_OPHHA Muscarinic toxin 38 (MTX38) Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra) (Naja hannah)
3SIMA_DENPO Muscarinic toxin alpha (MT-alpha) Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black mamba)
3SIMB_DENPO Adrenergic toxin rho-elapitoxin-Dp1a ... Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black mamba)

4 entries

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Orphan group VIII (haditoxin) sub-subfamily

Select_allDeselect_all "Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3SO8_BUNMU Muscarinic toxin-like protein Bungarus multicinctus (Many-banded krait)
3SO8_NAJAT Neurotoxin homolog NL1 Naja atra (Chinese cobra)
3SO8_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 3 (MTLP-3) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)
3SO8_NAJNA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 1 (MTLP-1) ... Naja naja (Indian cobra)

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Type B muscarinic toxin sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3SUB_DENAN Muscarinic toxin 2 (m2-toxin) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...

1 entry

Snake three-finger toxin family, Short-chain subfamily, Type C muscarinic toxin sub-subfamily

"Snake three-finger toxin family" VenomZone page
3SUC1_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 1 (MTLP-1) Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

1 entry

SNTX/VTX toxin family

VTXB_SYNVE Verrucotoxin subunit beta (VTX subunit beta) Synanceia verrucosa (Reef stonefish)

8 entries

Vasopressin/oxytocin family

Select_allDeselect_all
CESS_CONGE Conophysin-conopressin [Cleaved into: ... Conus geographus (Geography cone) (Nubecula ...
CONO1_CONML Conopressin-M1 (Con-M1) Conus miliaris (Thousand-spot cone)
CONO2_CONML Conopressin-M2 Conus miliaris (Thousand-spot cone)
CONOT_CONTU Conopressin-T (Con-T) Conus tulipa (Fish-hunting cone snail) (Tulip ...
CONOV_CONVL Gamma-conopressin vil Conus villepinii (Villepin's cone)
CONO_CONST Conopressin-S (Con-S) (Arg-conopressin S) Conus striatus (Striated cone)
CONO_CONTE Conopressin-Tx Conus textile (Cloth-of-gold cone)
CXPH_CONRA Conophysin-R Conus radiatus (Rayed cone)

1 entry

Venom Kunitz-type family

"Venom Kunitz-type family" VenomZone page
MAMB1_DENAN Mambaquaretin-1 (MQ-1) Dendroaspis angusticeps (Eastern green mamba) ...