Scorpion venom non-disulfide-bridged peptides (NDBP)

Scorpion venom non-disulfide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) represent a highly divergent and versatile group of peptides in regards to their primary sequence, rending them difficult to classify. Zeng et al. first established a classification system in 2005 using the criteria of pharmacological activity, peptide length and sequence similarity. At that time, there were only 17 peptides that were classified in six subfamilies with the suggestion that each peptide should be named NDBP-x.y where x and y stand for the subfamily and peptide number within the subfamily, which should be assigned chronologically. Due to the significant increase in the number of NDBPs discovered in the last decade, this classification system was updated in 2014 by Almaayatah and Albalas (Table 1). This new classification system uses the same criteria devised by Zeng and colleagues, slightly changes the previous classification (from 6 to 5 families) and only takes characterized peptides into consideration. As many uncharacterized peptides exist and need to be classified in a family, they have been classified in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot as belonging to the respective family and are available through the “All peptides” rows of Table 1. Note that group 5 proposed by Almaayatah and Albalas describes “antimalarial peptides” whose function in the venom is surely different. We decided to keep this function in the table in order to respect the pharmacological activity criteria. However, note that uncharacterized peptides of 24-29 residues (that can be classified as medium-length antimicrobial peptides or as antimalarial peptides) are only classified in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot as “medium-length antimicrobial peptides” because the aim of scorpion venom is not to fight plasmodia.


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See also Antimicrobial activity
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries Name Group name
and sequences
systematic name
All NDBPs
Group 1 Bradykinin potentiating peptides (13-21 residues)
All peptides
(Q9TWR4) Peptide T KKDGYPVEYDRAY NDBP-1.1
(Q9TWD3) K12 LRDYANRVINGGPVEAAGPPA NDBP-1.2
Group 2 Long chain multifunctional peptides (41-56 residues)
All peptides
(P82656) Hadrurin GILDTIKSIASKVWNSKTVQDLKRKGINWVANKLGVSPQAA NDBP-2.1
(Q9Y0X4) BmKbpp FRFGSFLKKVWKSKLAKKLRSKGKQLLKDYANKVLNGPEEEAAAPAE NDBP-2.2
(P83239) Pandinin-1 GKVWDWIKSAAKKIWSSEPVSQLKGQVLNAAKNYVAEKIGATPT NDBP-2.3
(P83313) Opistoporin1 GKVWDWIKSTAKKLWNSEPVKELKNTALNAAKNLVAEKIGATPS NDBP-2.4
(P83312) Parabutoporin FKLGSFLKKAWKSKLAKKLRAKGKEMLKDYAKGLLEGGSEEVPGQ NDBP-2.5
(P0CF38) Im-1 FSFKRLKGFAKKLWNSKLARKIRTKGLKYVKNFAKDMLSEGEEAPPAAEPPVEAPQ NDBP-2.6
(F1AWB0) Vejovine GIWSSIKNLASKAWNSDIGQSLRNKAAGAINKFVADKIGVTPSQAAS NDBP-2.7
(N0EAL3) Mauriporin FKIGGFIKKLWRSKLAKKLRAKGRELLKDYANRVINGGPEEEAAVPAE NDBP-2.8
Group 3 Medium-length antimicrobial peptides (24-29 residues)
All peptides
(P83240) Pandinin 2 FWGALAKGALKLIPSLFSSFSKKD NDBP-3.1
(P0DL41) Css54 FFGSLLSLGSKLLPSVFKLFQRKKE NDBP-3.2
(P0DMI7) HsAP SGTSEKERESGRLLGVVKRLIVCFRSPFP NDBP-3.3
Group 4 Short antimicrobial peptides (13-19 residues)
All peptides
(Q8MMJ7) IsCT ILGKIWEGIKSLF NDBP-4.1
(Q8MTX2) ISCT2 IFGAIWNGIKSLF NDBP-4.2
(Q718F4) BmKb1 FLFSLIPSAISGLISAFK NDBP-4.3
(Q6JQN2) BmKn2 FIGAIANLLSKIF NDBP-4.4
(B9UIY3) Mucroporin LFGLIPSLIGGLVSAFK NDBP-4.5
(E4VP07) Meucin-13 IFGAIAGLLKNIF NDBP-4.6
(C7B247) Imcroporin FFSLLPSLIGGLVSAIK NDBP-4.7
(P0DJO3) StCT1 GFWGSLWEGVKSVV NDBP-4.8
(P0DJ02) HP1090 IFKAIWSGIKSLF NDBP-4.9
(G1FE62) Ctriporin FLWGLIPGAISAVTSLIKK NDBP-4.10
(G8YYA5) AamAP1 FLFSLIPHAIGGLISAFK NDBP-4.11
(G8YYA6) AamAP2 FPFSLIPHAIGGLISAIK NDBP-4.12
(I0DEB3) VmCT1 FLGALWNVAKSVF NDBP-4.13
(I0DEB4) VmCT2 FLSTLWNAAKSIF NDBP-4.14
(P0DJO4) StCT2 GFWGKLWEGVKSAI NDBP-4.15
(L0GCV8) UyCT1 GFWGKLWEGVKNAI NDBP-4.16
(L0GCV8) UyCT2 FWGKLWEGVKNAI NDBP-4.17
(L0GCI6) UyCT3 ILSAIWSGIKSLF NDBP-4.18
(L0GAZ8) UyCT5 IWSAIWSGIKGLL NDBP-4.19
(R4JNJ5) Pantinin-1 GILGKLWEGFKSIV NDBP-4.20
(R4JQZ0) Pantinin-2 IFGAIWKGISSLL NDBP-4.21
(R4JJN6) Pantinin-3 FLSTIWNGIKSLL NDBP-4.22
(S6CWV8) TsAP-1 FLSLIPSLVGGSISAFK NDBP-4.23
(S6D3A7) TsAP-2 FLGMIPGLIGGLISAFK NDBP-4.24
Group 5 Antimalarial peptides (24-25 residues)
All peptides
(P0CH57) Meucin-24 GRGREFMSNLKEKLSGVKEKMKNS NDBP-5.1
(P0CH58) Meucin-25 VKLIQIRIWIQYVTVLQMFSMKTKQ NDBP-5.2


Table 1: Classification of scorpion NDBPs according to Almaayatah and Albalas, 2014.