Voltage-gated chloride channel impairing toxin

Voltage-gated chloride channels (ClC) are found from bacteria to man, and represent a unique family of ion channel proteins not related in sequence or structure to any of the other known families. Nine isoforms of ClC channels in humans are involved in various physiological functions. They are expressed either in the plasma membrane or in the membranes of intracellular organelles. In the plasma membrane, certain ClC channels control the resting potential in muscle and some neurons. Others are involved in the reabsorption of NaCl from the kidney into the bloodstream.
3D-structure view (2PFI) of the chloride channel protein ClC-Ka.

The ClC channels are homodimeric proteins with an overall rhombus-like shape. Each ClC channel has two pores each contained within a single subunit. The ClC subunit consists of two roughly repeated halves that span the membrane with opposite orientations. This antiparallel architecture defines a chloride selectivity filter within the 15-angstrom neck of an hourglass-shaped pore. Three Cl- binding sites within the selectivity filter stabilize ions by interactions with α-helix dipoles and by chemical interactions with nitrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups of residues in the protein (Dutzler, 2004 and references therein).
Toxins from different taxa that target channels/receptors.
Click on image to retrieve toxins of interest.
Human Snake Scorpion Cone
Spider Cnidarian Insect Other All
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Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN2 image - image - - - - - image
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN3 image - image - - - - - image
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN4 image - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN5 image - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN6 image - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCN7 image - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCNKA image - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel CLCNKB image - - - - - - - -
Voltage-gated chloride channel All image - image - - - - - image

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

(all links/actions below point to uniprot.org website)

19 entries grouped by species

1 entry

Androctonus australis (Sahara scorpion)

CTXL_ANDAU Chlorotoxin-like peptide AaCtx Short scorpion toxin ...

1 entry

Androctonus mauritanicus mauritanicus (Scorpion)

CTXL_ANDMA Peptide P2 (AmmP2) Short scorpion toxin ...

2 entries

Hottentotta tamulus (Eastern Indian scorpion) (Mesobuthus tamulus)

CTXL3_HOTTA Neurotoxin BtITx3 (Neurotoxin BTChl1) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL_HOTTA Lepidopteran-selective toxin (BTChl2) (ButaIT) Short scorpion toxin ...

2 entries

Hottentotta tamulus sindicus (Scorpion) (Buthus sindicus)

CTXL1_HOTTS Chlorotoxin-like peptide Bs 8 (Bs8) (Peptide I) (Small toxin) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL_HOTTS Chlorotoxin-like peptide Bs 14 (Bs14) Short scorpion toxin ...

3 entries

Leiurus hebraeus (Deathstalker scorpion) (Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus)

CTXL1_LEIHE Toxin GaTx1 Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL8_LEIHE Toxin Lqh 8/6 Short scorpion toxin ...
KAX83_LEIHE Potassium channel toxin alpha-KTx 8.3 (Gating modifier of anion ... Short scorpion toxin ...

1 entry

Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Egyptian scorpion) (Deathstalker scorpion)

CTXL_LEIQU Chlorotoxin (CTX) (ClTx) (Tozuleristide) Short scorpion toxin ...

6 entries

Mesobuthus eupeus (Lesser Asian scorpion) (Buthus eupeus)

CTX5A_MESEU Insectotoxin-I5A (BeIT5A) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXI1_MESEU Insectotoxin-I1 Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXI3_MESEU Insectotoxin-I3 (BeI3) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXI4_MESEU Insectotoxin-I4 (BeI4) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXI5_MESEU Insectotoxin-I5 (BeI5) Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL2_MESEU Chlorotoxin-like peptide MeICT Short scorpion toxin ...

2 entries

Mesobuthus martensii (Manchurian scorpion) (Buthus martensii)

CTXLB_MESMA Chlorotoxin-like peptide Bm12-b Short scorpion toxin ...
CTXL_MESMA Chlorotoxin-like BmK CT (BmKCT) (Bm-12) (BmKCL1) (BmKClTx3) ... Short scorpion toxin ...

1 entry

Parabuthus schlechteri (Scorpion)

CTXL1_PARSC Toxin PBITx1 (sITx10) Short scorpion toxin ...