Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra)

Venom composition image
Figure 1: Venom proteome composition of Naja kaouthia, studied at proteomic level. A. from North-East India (Kakati et al., 2022), and B. from Thailand (Laustsen et al., 2015).
In the study of Kakati and colleagues (2022), the venom proteome is deciphered using the LC-MS/MS analysis of either the SDS-PAGE bands or the RP-HPLC peaks. Since venom proteomes obtained by these approaches are quite similar, only the venom proteome deciphered from the LC-MS/MS analysis of the SDS-PAGE bands is shown here. The major differences found with the LC-MS/MS analysis of RP-HPLC peaks are the lack of detection of 5'-NUC (5'-nucleotidase), PDE (phosphodiesterase), Cystatin, PLB (phospholipase B), and aminopeptidase, and an important detection (8%) of natriuretic peptides.

This venom contains the following families: 3FTXs (three-finger toxin), PA2 (phospholipase A2), SVMP (venom metalloproteinase), CVF (cobra venom factor), CRISP, 5'-NUC (5'-nucleotidase), PDE (phosphodiesterase), LAAO (flavin monoamine oxidase (L-amino acid oxidase)), NGF, Cystatin, VES (ohanin/vespryn), PLB (phospholipase B), aminopeptidase, AchE (acetylcholine esterase) (Kakati et al., 2022).

Two studies indicate that the proportion of neurotoxins of the three-finger toxin family are present in the venom at a higher percentage (55-70%) compared to cytotoxins (30-45%) (Laustsen et al., 2015 and Liu et al., 2017).

Clinical Effects, Treatment, Antivenoms See the Clinical Toxinology Resources Website
Lethal dose LD(50) is 0.24 mg/kg when intravenously injected into mice (Laustsen et al., 2015).
LD(50) is 0.34 mg/kg when subcutaneously injected into mice (Liu et al., 2017).

Venom protein entries in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

(all links/actions below point to uniprot.org website)

34 entries grouped by species (browse by taxonomy, browse by keywords)

34 entries

Naja kaouthia (Monocled cobra) (Naja siamensis)

Select_allDeselect_all
3L21_NAJKA Alpha-cobratoxin (Alpha-CT) (Alpha-CbT) (Alpha-Cbtx) (Alpha-Ctx) ... Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3NO21_NAJKA Neurotoxin Nk-3FTx (Fragment) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3NO29_NAJKA Weak toxin CM-9a Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3NO2N_NAJKA Weak toxin NWT Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3NO2_NAJKA Tryptophan-containing weak neurotoxin (WTX) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3S1B1_NAJKA Short neurotoxin 1 (Toxin C-6) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3S1B2_NAJKA Cobrotoxin II (CBT II) (CBT2) (Short neurotoxin 1) (Short ... Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3S1B_NAJKA Cobrotoxin-b (CBT-b) (Short neurotoxin III) (NT3) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3S1CB_NAJKA Cobrotoxin (CBT) (Short neurotoxin I) (NT1) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3S1C_NAJKA Cobrotoxin-c (CBT-c) (Short neurotoxin II) (NT2) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SA1_NAJKA Cytotoxin 1 (NK-CT1) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SA2_NAJKA Cytotoxin 2 Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SA3_NAJKA Cytotoxin 3 (CX3) (Toxin CM-7) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SA4_NAJKA Cytotoxin 4 (Cytotoxin IV) (Siamextin) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SA5_NAJKA Cytotoxin 5 (Cytotoxin II) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SA7A_NAJKA Cytotoxin 2 (CX2) (Toxin CM-7A) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SA8_NAJKA Cytotoxin 1 (CTX1) (CX1) (Cardiotoxin F8) (Cardiotoxin-I) ... Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SO8_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 3 (MTLP-3) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SOFH_NAJKA Cytotoxin homolog (Cytotoxin-like basic protein) (CLBP) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SUC1_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 1 (MTLP-1) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SUC2_NAJKA Muscarinic toxin-like protein 2 (MTLP-2) Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
3SX_NAJKA Nakoroxin (Naja kaouthia orphan toxin) (Three-finger toxin) ... Snake three-finger toxin family, ...
CRVP1_NAJKA Cysteine-rich venom protein kaouthin-1 (Cysteine-rich venom ... CRISP family
CRVP2_NAJKA Cysteine-rich venom protein kaouthin-2 (Cysteine-rich venom ... CRISP family
CRVPO_NAJKA Cysteine-rich venom protein 24 (CRVP-24k) (Fragment) CRISP family
CYT_NAJKA Cystatin Cystatin family
NGFV_NAJKA Venom nerve growth factor (v-NGF) (vNGF) NGF-beta family
OXLA_NAJKA L-amino-acid oxidase (K-LAO) (LAAO) (EC 1.4.3.2) (Fragment) Flavin monoamine oxidase family, ...
PA2A1_NAJKA Acidic phospholipase A2 CM-II (CM 2) (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...
PA2A2_NAJKA Acidic phospholipase A2 2 (svPLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) (CM-III) ... Phospholipase A2 family, Group I ...
VCO3_NAJKA Cobra venom factor (CVF) (CVFk) (Complement C3 homolog) [Cleaved ... Venom complement C3 homolog ...
VESP_NAJKA Thaicobrin Ohanin/vespryn family
VM3K_NAJKA Hemorrhagic metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like kaouthiagin (EC ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...
VM3_NAJKA Zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrin-like cobrin (EC 3.4.24.-) ... Venom metalloproteinase (M12B) ...